A Critical Investigation Of Breast Cancer And Its Risk Factors In A Tertiary Hospital In Abuja

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A Critical Investigation Of Breast Cancer And Its Risk Factors In A Tertiary Hospital In Abuja


Abstract


This study was carried out to critically investigate breast cancer and its risk factors in a tertiary hospital in Abuja. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of breast cancer among women, investigate the risk factors of breast cancer in women and ascertain if women have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with breast cancer.The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of breast cancer patient in a tertiary hospital in Abuja.In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool.The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of breast cancer among women is high.The study also revealed that he risk factors of breast cancer in women includes: multi parity, abortion, alcohol consumption, smoking habits and overweight/obesity.Therefore, it is recommended that girl-child education should be intensified by the Nigeria Education Service. In so doing, women will be able to read and acquire more information on preventive measures against breast cancer. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in the industrialized world and the second highest cause of death in the developing world. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer among women, accounting for 1.38 million new cases identified in 2008 (23 percent of all cancers), and ranks second overall (10.9 percent , of all cancer). It is now the most frequent cancer in both industrialized and developing countries, with an estimated 690,000 new cases in each region (Global Cancer Statistics, 2011).

In high-income countries, great progress has been made in cancer treatment and care, and while cancer incidence continues to climb as a result of an aging lifestyle and population expansion, death has decreased. (Centre for Disease Control-CDC Report 2010) Although breast cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death worldwide (458,000 deaths), it remains the leading cause of cancer death in women in both developing and industrialized countries (Global cancer statistics, 2011).

This decline in mortality and increase in survival rates is attributable to advancements in screening, particularly mammography and other early detection tools that are spread around the country, as well as better treatment. There are cancer control programs in Western countries that include active recruitment tactics for breast cancer screening programs such as sending letters, making phone calls, mailing educational materials, and organizing training activities with reminders for women. These are methods that increase the number of women who show up for a community breast cancer screening service. Some combinations of effective actions (such as a letter and phone calls) have significant effects and have been tested primarily among women from lower socioeconomic groups (Bonfill, Marzo, Pladevall, Marti, & Emparanza., 2009). Despite these advances, one-third of breast cancer cases in the United States are diagnosed at a late stage when treatment is less effective. The Centre for Disease Control study discovered reduced acceptance of screening and late presentation of symptoms in low-income and ethnic minority populations, as well as extended delays in diagnosis and treatment. Many patients are ignorant of the signs of cancer, and factors such as health literacy, cultural attitudes about obtaining medical care, fear and embarrassment associated with cancer diagnosis, and challenges navigating the healthcare system all play a role. Physicians often contribute to the delay by failing to notice sentinel symptoms and refer the appropriate patients for further evaluation (CDC Report 2010).

According to studies by the government’s director of cancer services, up to 10,000 people die of cancer in the United Kingdom each year because their diagnoses are identified too late due to a variety of characteristics such as ethnicity, social disadvantage, and gender. Social-economic position is a major motivator for women to accept breast cancer screening; impoverished populations appear to have later stage breast cancer presentation, potentially amplifying the effect of inequities in breast screening uptake. Despite the availability of cancer screening facilities and a high proportion of cancer-informed citizens in the UK, there is solid evidence that certain ethnic sub-groups have lower participation rates than the overall population (Weller and Campbell, 2009).

Breast cancer management in low and middle income nations presents a unique mix of issues, including access to screening, stage at presentation, quality of management, and the availability of therapeutic interventions. Routine mammography infrastructure and resources are frequently unavailable. Breast cancer is typically identified late in these countries, and women with breast cancer may receive insufficient treatment or palliative care due to a lack of resources. (2010) (Arafat, Temraz, Mrad, and Shamseddine)

Many hurdles have been discovered for breast cancer patients in low and middle income nations, which may correlate with lower incidence and mortality rates in such countries as compared to high income countries. These barriers include a lack of breast cancer awareness as a result of poor health awareness and education, a lack of screening programs as a result of a lack of government support and insufficient funds, and social barriers to early diagnosis and treatment as a result of a low priority for women’s health issues in predominantly male-dominated societies.

Patriarchal developing nations, the social taboo of cancer and misconceptions about cancer treatment and result, a lack of standardized treatment protocol with a diversity of clinical practices, healthcare standards and infrastructure, and ultimately follow-up data and a lack of mortality statistics


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Cancer infrastructure in Abuja is limited, and some cancer management alternatives are unavailable. Most breast cancer cases are detected at an advanced stage when there is nothing that can be done. Breast cancer therapy is quite expensive and many women with financial resources have to fly to countries like India, South Africa and USA for specialized treatment (Leigh mc Adam 2010). Women are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer, thus it is critical that they acknowledge and be screened for the disease in order to avoid a late diagnosis that makes treatment difficult, if not impossible.

Several studies have been conducted on the impact of various factors on women’s acceptance of breast cancer screening in diverse settings around the world. Most of these studies have mainly focused on women attending hospital or those that had been screened before. In Abuja, studies haven’t been undertaken on breast cancer and risk variables in a hospital environment. Inadequate research has been conducted to examine how these characteristics influence the acceptance of breast cancer screening in low-resource areas and among women who do not attend hospital and have never been checked for breast cancer.

Women in rural environments are medically underserved and have a higher risk of acquiring and dying from breast cancer. This study intends to investigate breast cancer and its risk factors.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to investigate breast cancer and its risk factors. Thus, the following objectives;

  1. To determine the prevalence of breast cancer among women.
  2. To investigate the risk factors of breast cancer in women.
  3. To ascertain if women have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with breast cancer.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions guide this study;

  1. What is the prevalence of breast cancer among women?
  2. What are the risk factors of breast cancer in women?
  3. Does women have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with breast cancer?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Women do not have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with breast cancer.
  • Ha: Women have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with breast cancer.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant to women as it will expatiate on the concept of breast cancer, its causes and possible treatment. It will also urge women to seek advice and treatment should in case they notice any changes in that part of the body. This study will also create awareness for hospitals to have outreaches to women to encourage them to go for medical checkups regularly.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will only cover causes of breast cancer and its risk factors in a tertiary hospital in Abuja. The primary cause of breast cancer will be looked into alongside risk factors after which, suggestions will be provided to women both those with breast cancer and those who do not have breast cancer.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

1. Cancer:

Is a class of diseases characterized by out of control cell growth. These cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissues.

2. Breast Cancer:

This is the type of cancer that affects the breast part of women screening: This is the process of detecting cancer in women without signs or symptoms of breast cancer.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on a critical investigation of breast cancer and its risk factors in a tertiary hospital in Abuja. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on a critical investigation of breast cancer and its risk factors in a tertiary hospital in Abuja. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the prevalence of breast cancer among women, investigate the risk factors of breast cancer in women and ascertain if women have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with breast cancer.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were breast cancer patient in a tertiary hospital in Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The prevalence of breast cancer among women is high.
  2. The risk factors of breast cancer in women includes: multi parity, abortion, alcohol consumption, smoking habits and overweight/obesity.
  3. Women do not have adequate knowledge of the risk factors associated with breast cancer.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is need for the extensive use of mass media for generating awareness and in early detection of breast cancer.
  2. Women must be taught self breast examination and mammogram to identify the breast cancer earlier
  3. Girl-child education should be intensified by the Nigeria Education Service. In so doing, women will be able to read and acquire more information on preventive measures against breast cancer.
  4. There is the need to educate all Nigerians, if possible through the media, on the health implications of smoking, which is a risk factor for a lot of diseases including breast cancer. The Ministry of Health should intensify education on the health implications of smoking among school children through the School Health Education Programme (SHEP)

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