Assessment Of The Importance Of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Female Student Of ECWA College Of Health Technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area Of Kaduna State

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Assessment Of The Importance Of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Female Student Of ECWA College Of Health Technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area Of Kaduna State (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The study was specifically set to determine female student level of awareness of cervical cancer screening in ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State, ascertain the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State, and identify the factors affecting the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 220 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of awareness of cervical cancer screening among female student in ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State is low. The result of the findings reveals that cervical cancer screening is of great importance among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State as it helps: to find precancerous cervical cell changes on time, prevent cervical cancer from developing, to prevent deterioration of cervical cancer, and to start cervical cancer treatment on time. Therefore, it is recommended that it is important to make screening facilities available for students. Also, more educational interventions are warranted as over one-third of our respondents reported not having the right information on CC screening. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cervical cancer, representing 13% of female cancer growths and a huge contributor to cancer-related deaths, is the commonest gynaecological cancerous growth among women globally (WHO 2002). According the WHO, it is the most common cancer-causing mortalities among women globally with an estimated number of over 570 000 to 700000 cases between 2018 and 2030 (Shanta, 2005). Surprisingly, the authors revealed that a significant number of females affected are younger women. About 85% of these cases occurred in technologically advanced countries. However, the burden is found to be higher in low- and middle-income countries than in advanced countries(Yang et al., 2004). Worldwide report in 2012 indicated that 266,000 women died of cervical cancer, which is equivalent to one woman dying every 2 minutes (Shanta, 2005).

In sub-Saharan Africa, the mortality rate is accounted to be high (22.5) per 100,00 as compared to Western Asia, Western Europe, and Australia where the mortality rate is less (PATH 2000). American Cancer Society, therefore foresaw the diagnosis and deaths related to cervical cancer in America to increase to 12,360 and 4020 respectively. Cervical cancer was discovered to be more common among women with HIV especially those in Southern Africa and Eastern Africa with an estimation of more than 20 per 100 000 cases among inhabitants of these regions (Hyacinth 2013).

Fortunately, some authors have reported that cervical cancer could be prevented, and mortality be reduced through early diagnosis with cervical cancer screening Kyari et al(2004). In Nigeria, a researcher supported this by indicating that cervical cancer can be eradicated through preventive screening and early detection of precancerous lesions (Nwosu & Ana (2014). A similar result was published in China that CCS can be utilized in the bid to dwindle the rate of cervical cancer load apart from the HPV antibodies and HPV DNA testing (Sankaranarayanan et al 2001.)

Despite the availability of cervical screening services in some hospitals in Nigeria, less than 8.9% of the female students in Nigeria reported having been screened for cervical cancer, even after being aware of the screening services (Shrestha et al 2013]. Even though most studies have identified an appreciable level of knowledge on cervical cancer among female students the patronage rate in the screening among female students was reported to be low (Shrestha et al 2013]. The major challenge is that most of the female students were engaged in factors that increase women’s risk of CC such as pre-marital sex. Hence, some researchers in Nigeria have suggested that University Health Services should develop strategies to help increase female students’ interest in CCS (Kyari et al(2004). Hence the researchers in this current study aim to explore the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Cancer of the cervix is a major burden on women’s health worldwide (Ibekwe et al., 2011). It is ranked as the second most frequent cancer among women in Africa and the second most frequent cancer among women aged 15 to 44 (WHO/ICO,2010). Although cervical cancer is preventable, many women continue to die because of diagnosis at an advanced stage. Cervical cancer screening is a universally accepted early detection strategy that reduces the morbidity and mortality rates associated with the disease. The long transition period from a premalignant cervical lesion to cancer of the cervix affords possibilities for early detection and effective treatment. (Araoye 2004).

However, Successfully organized, population based cervical cancer screening programmes have not yet been implemented in most tertiary institutions in developing countries, despite the great burden of cervical cancer in these countries. This is largely related to poverty, lack of resources and infrastructure and marginalization of women. (Ibekwe et al., 2011). Due to a lack of an organized screening system in most developing countries for detecting precursor lesions, mortality rates from cervical cancer are used as a measure of its severity.

Additionally, the authors noted that screening practices in Nigeria are considered inadequate, with only 2.4% of the participants in a study having undergone a pap test. It was also discovered that the most prevalent Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women in Nigeria were HR-HPV 16, 18, 45, 35, and 52 [19]. Although the cost of Pap tests has not been documented, the cost range for visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) was reported to be between 4.93 US$ and 14.75 US$, while the cost of cryotherapy as a treatment option for cervical cancer ranged from 47.26 US$ to 84.48 US$ [20].


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Other objectives of this study are:

  1. Determine female student level of awareness of cervical cancer screening in ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State
  2. Ascertain the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
  3. Identify the factors affecting the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study.

  1. What is the level of awareness of cervical cancer screening among female student in ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
  2. What are the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State?
  3. What are the factors affecting the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: Cervical cancer screening is of no importance among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
  • Ha: Cervical cancer screening is of importance among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The information gathered will help policy makers to plan and implement necessary interventions that will enable female student to have good knowledge of cervical cancer and provide access to cervical cancer screening services within the communities. Hence, this study was conducted in tertiary institution to assess the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for future reference and further research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on the the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Hence, This study will only focus on ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

  • Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
  • Financial constraint, was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
  • Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher.

1.9 Definition of Terms

Cervical Cancer:

A type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.

Cervical Screening:

For the purpose of this study refers to early detection of pre-cancerous lesions through a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to assess the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. The study was specifically set to determine female student level of awareness of cervical cancer screening in ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State, ascertain the importance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State, and identify the factors affecting the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The level of awareness of cervical cancer screening among female student in ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State is low.
  2. Cervical cancer screening is of great importance among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State as it helps: to find precancerous cervical cell changes on time, prevent cervical cancer from developing, to prevent deterioration of cervical cancer, and to start cervical cancer treatment on time.
  3. The factors affecting the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among female student of ECWA college of health technology Kagoro, Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State includes: poor knowledge about cervical cancer, poor attitudes towards disease, lack of awareness of risk factors, and lack of accessibility of healthcare facility.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. It is important to make screening facilities available for students. Also, more educational interventions are warranted as over one-third of our respondents reported not having the right information on CC screening.
  2. Cervical cancer screening should be made mandatory for admission and suggested it be included in pre-admission screening requirements to encourage more Ghanaian women to participate.
  3. Health workers at the level of Health Centre II and above should be supported and trained on the cancer of the cervix and empowered to pass on knowledge to the populations they serve.
  4. Also, the National program on cervical cancer control should be integrated into the existing health system. Thus, it should be community or population based.

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