The Impact Of Electronic Media On Cervical Cancer Intervention Awareness Among Women In Enugu State

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Impact Of Electronic Media On Cervical Cancer Intervention Awareness Among Women In Enugu State


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

(Brinton 1992) defined Cervical cancer as a form of cancer that develops in the cells of the cervix, which links the uterus to the vagina. Most cervical cancers are caused by different strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted infection.

When the body is exposed to HPV, the immune system usually stops the virus from causing harm. However, in a tiny number of people, the virus lives for years, contributing to the process by which certain cervical cells develop into cancer cells.

You can lower your chance of acquiring cervical cancer by getting screening tests and getting vaccinated against HPV infection (Anorlu 2008).

In 2008,( Mullins, Wakefield,& Broun, 2008) observed that an estimated five hundred and seventy thousand (570,000) women were diagnosed with cervical cancer globally, with around three hundred and eleven thousand (311,000) women dying as a result of the disease. Cervical cancer develops when healthy cells in the cervix have DNA abnormalities which are also known as mutations. The DNA of a cell includes the instructions that inform the cell what to do.

Healthy cells develop and replicate at a predictable pace before dying at a predictable period. The mutations cause the cells to proliferate and replicate uncontrollably, and they do not perish. The aberrant cells that are accumulating create a bulk (tumor). Cancer cells infiltrate neighboring tissues and can break out from a tumor to spread (metastasize) elsewhere in the body.

(Mullins, Wakefield & Broun, 2008) also noted that cervical cancer is one of the most successfully treated types of cancer when found early and handled well. Late-stage cancers can also be managed with adequate therapy and palliative care. A cancerous tumor of the cervix, or the lowermost section of the uterus. It is a malignant tumor of the uterus (womb) that can be avoided by PAP smear screening and an HPV vaccination. There may be no symptoms at all. There may be irregular bleeding or discomfort in a few situations.

Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer globally, behind breast, lung, and colorectal cancers, and is a major source of morbidity and mortality in women. It is the second most frequent female cancer in developing nations and the primary cause of gynecological cancer morbidity and death. Because of its gradual course from the pre-malignant to the late cancerous stage, cervical cancer is a preventable human disease (Nwankwo, Aniebue, Agwuna 2010).

However, most women especially in the subsaharan Africa are not aware of this as they have not been privy to aforementioned information. The use of media can be used to propagate this information and raise awareness. Media is said to be any means of mass communication that is easily accessible and can help in the spread of information. There are different types of media. Examples of which are the print media, electronic media, social media etc. For the purpose of this research, the focus will be on print media and its awareness impact of cancer. The use of print media in cancer preventive messages is fast increasing.

Electronic media are medias that use electronic and electromechanical means for the audience to access content. According to (Okorie, Oyesomi & Kayode 2014), the study on the usefulness of deploying electronic media awareness campaigns to support cervical cancer treatment acknowledges the real and potential responsibilities of various types of media. According to the study, while mass media channels have the potential to reach and enlighten a vast number of people, the use of electronic media, has proven to be more important in encouraging attitudinal change. In light of this, it is necessary to explore the influence of electronic media inclusion on cervical cancer awareness in Nigeria.

The use of radio, television and the internet has had a satisfactory effect. Studies show that the accessibility of rural women to electronic media has been significantly increased ( Chun 2021).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The study’s dilemma focuses around the media’s downpour of cervical cancer messaging and the seeming ignorance of a big majority of women regarding the disease. The issue is, if the electronic media has made such a significant contribution, why is there still a lack of understanding about cervical cancer in Enugu State?

The majority of women are unaware of early detection techniques for cervical cancer, its nature, how to avoid it, and the numerous treatments available for the cancer. Is the problem related to the state’s large proportion of illiterate women, who are unable to interpret media messages about cervical cancer, or to a lack of physical facilities and amenities, particularly in rural areas? (Okorie, Oyesomi & Kayode 2014)

These concerns prompted the study’s dilemma, which is: to what degree did the electronic media contribute to cervical cancer awareness among women in Enugu State, and how effectively the women absorbed and understood the information


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the Impacts of electronic media on Cervical Cancer Intervention Awareness among women in Enugu State.

Other objectives of this study are:

  1. To investigate how effective is the electronic media in the awareness campaign of cervical cancer.
  2. The different reasons why there is still a lack of cervical cancer awareness among women.
  3. To investigate if other medium of communication is more effective than the electronic media in the cervical cancer awareness intervention

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How effective is the electronic media in the awareness campaign of cervical cancer?
  2. What are the different reasons why there is still a lack of cervical cancer awareness among women?
  3. Are other forms of media communication more effective than the electronic media in the cervical cancer awareness intervention?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. Ha1: In spite of electronic media messages, there is knowledge-gap among literate and non- literate women of Enugu State regarding cervical cancer information
    Ho1: In spite of electronic media messages, there is no knowledge -gap among literate and non-literate women of Enugu State regarding cervical cancer information.
  2. Ha2: There is relationship between level of education and knowledge of cervical cancer from the electronic media
    Ho2: There is no relationship between level of education and knowledge of cervical cancer from the electronic media

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of significantly important to both urban and rural women as it will raise the awareness of cervical cancer . This study will also be of importance to the different channels of mass media as it will let them know how effective the media is in the awareness campaign of cervical cancer. This study will also be beneficial to the society as it will raise the level of awareness thus leading to early detection and the saving of lives.

Finally, this study will serve as an existing material for future reference and further research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on the impacts of electronic media on cervical cancer intervention awareness among women in Enugu State. It will also investigate the effectiveness of electronic media in the awareness campaign of cervical cancer.

Furthermore, the reasons cancer awareness is still low in the society despite the awareness through media campaigns. This study will only focus on Enugu State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The focus of this study will only be electronic media and as such will not be focusing on other forms of mass media, this study will also be focusing on only cervical cancer and not other forms of cancer.

In addition, this study will be focusing on Enugu women only. This serves as a limitation of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Electronic Media:

Media that can share on any electronic device for the viewing pleasure of the audience

Cervical Cancer:

Cervical cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the cells of the cervix, which links the uterus to the vagina

Intervention:

The action or process of intervening

Awareness:

Knowledge or perception of a situation or fact


The Impact Of Electronic Media On Cervical Cancer Intervention Awareness Among Women In Enugu State


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