An Assessment Of The Print Media In Creating Awareness Campaign On Lassa Fever In Nigeria
This paper investigates the impact of media campaign on the prevention and spread of Lassa fever in Ebonyi state. 354 respondents were randomly selected from six rural communities in the state as study sample, while structured questionnaires were used for collecting data. SPSS version20.0 was used to analyze the data. Results of analysis reveal that the media campaign has rural reach but has little or no impact. The results also reveal that the campaign failed to create appropriate awareness of the disease, its preventive/curative health behaviors. It further reveals that there are no health behavior modifications among the people because of the campaign. Therefore, this paper recommends the modification of media contents to incorporate the required preventive/curative health behaviors. Secondly, mandatory mass media aware- ness campaign and jingles in every news hour is recommended.
1.1 Background of the Study
Lassa fever (LF) or Lassa haemorrhagic fever (LHF) is an acute viral illness caused by the Lassa virus which was first discovered and isolated in 1969 in the town of Lassa in Borno State of Nigeria. Lassa virus is a member of the Arenaviridae virus. The primary host of the virus is the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis), found commonly in most of Sub-Saharan Africa. The fever has been reported to be primarily spread by contact with the faeces or urine of rodents (McCormick, 2011).
It is endemic among the rodent population in countries such as Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia, where it is known to cause outbreaks on an almost annual basis (World Health Organisation, 2016). Given its high rate of incidence, Lassa fever is a major problem in affected countries (Centre for Disease Control, 2014a and 2014b). Lassa fever commonly occurs in West Africa resulting in 300,000 to 500,000 cases annually with 5,000 deaths per year (Richmond, 2003). Disease outbreaks have been commonly observed in Nigeria, Liberia, Guinea, Central African Republic, Sierra Leone, Benin, Ghana and lately Mali, but probably exists in other West African countries as well (World Health Organisation, 2016). Overall, the case fatality rate (CFR) has been reported to be 1% while those from hospitalized patients with severe Lassa fever reach 15% (World Health Organisation, 2016). Clinical manifestation of Lassa fever is extremely difficult to distinguish from other febrile illness and most often at the initial phase (Bausch, 2001). Symptoms such as gastrointestinal, pharyngitis and cough are common signs. However late complications of Lassa fever include convulsion, facial oedema, pleural and pericardial effusions, bleeding and coma. The terminal stages of illness include shock (Bausch, 2001).
The drug of choice in humans is ribavirin which is better commenced early before one week of infection for survival (McCormick, 2011). Prevention of Lever fever has been reported to be effective when good community hygiene is promoted so as to discourage rodents from entering homes (World Health Organisation, 2016). Such effective measures include proper garbage disposal far from home, maintenance of clean households and cat storage as well as storage of grains and other foodstuffs in rodent proof containers. Furthermore, health workers and staff should always apply standard infection prevention and control when caring for patients regardless of their presumed diagnosis (World Health Organisation, 2016).
The report by Senthilingam of CNN in 17 March 2016 (downloaded from the internet on 25th May 2016) showed that more than 130 died from LF in 22 states and as at 14 March as reported by NCDC, the total number of suspected cases were 254 with 137 deaths (suspected and probable) and CFR of 53.9%. This was compared with the 2012 outbreak of Lassa fever with 1,700 infected and 112 deaths. From the Vanguard publication of 5 April 2016 by Olawale on the UN organisation report on Lassa fever more than 160 were killed in West Africa with Nigeria accounting for 85% (138) out of 164 of Lassa fever cases.
The print media serves as a source of cultural, political, health and other educational and enlightenment programmes for the masses, leading them towards self-actualisation and national development (Ellinas, 2010). Print media is a medium of communication through which the individuals share the world around them and beyond their immediate environment. The print media educates citizens on new issues inherent in the society. For example, issues on health, politics, business, current affairs, etc, are aired to create awareness. Media serves as an agent of social mobilisation, people are moved to delivering a certain goal, based on their awareness of their rights and responsibility to the society (Cohen, 2001).
The print media helps health workers expand their audience reach, which is crucial considering the fact that face-to-face channels of communication often require too many human resources and reach only a small number of people in large, underserved rural areas. The print media provides an important link between the rural residents and vital health information.
The print media are effective way to persuade target audiences to adopt new behaviors, or to remind them of critical information. Besides informing the public about Lassa fever: symptoms, treatment, prevention and where to seek help, they can also keep the public updated about vaccination campaigns. The print media can “empower rural populations to fight major causes of Lassa fever epidemic such as maintaining a clean and healthy environment, can be prevented through vaccination, inform large numbers of people for the benefits of living a healthy life (Hartman, 2010).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Lassa fever is a life-threatening blood disease caused by black rat. People with Lassa fever often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. Lassa fever is diverstating families, made poor; poorer and costs the nation about 140 billion naira annually”. It hampers children’s schooling and social development in general. The problem necessitating this study is thus: what is the effectiveness of the print media in sensitizing people against Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The basic objectives of this study are:
- To examine the causes of Lassa fever in Nigeria
- To ascertain the awareness level of print media campaigns against Lassa fever in Nigeria.
- To determine how audience response to Lassa fever campaigns on print media in Nigeria.
- To find out the demographic factors that affect audience awareness to Lassa fever campaigns by print media in Nigeria?
- To find the challenges hindering print media campaigns of Lassa fever in Nigeria?
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study will enable relevant agencies concerned with eradicating Lassa fever in Ebonyi state and Nigeria in general to appraise the media framework for possible modification or modernization. The study exposes the rural people’s perception of the media as an institution concerned with people’s welfare and from there highlight the potency of the media as instrument of mass education and mobilization for public policy implication in the state.
1.5 Research Questions
- What is the causes of Lassa fever in Nigeria?
- What is the awareness level of print media campaigns against Lassa fever in Nigeria ?
- How does audience respond to Lassa fever campaigns on print media in Nigeria?
- What are the demographic factors that affect audience awareness to Lassa fever campaigns by print media in Nigeria?
- What are the challenges hindering print media campaigns of Lassa fever in Nigeria?
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study covers the three geo-political zones that constitute Ebonyi state, although rural communities were randomly selected as areas of study. Thematically, the study is restricted to Lassa fever media awareness and its impact on the environmental health behavior of rural inhabitants.
Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
In its investigation of the impact of mass media awareness campaign on the prevention of the spread of Laser Fever in the rural communities of Ebonyi State, this paper made the following findings:
There is high-level awareness of Lassa fever disease in the rural communities of Ebonyi state but only 31.2% learnt about it through radio/TV programs.
Majority of the respondents lack the appropriate knowledge of the symptoms of Lassa fever.
Majority of the respondents lack the appropriate knowledge of the required personal and family hygienic/health behaviors needed to prevent Lassa fever.
There is no health behavior modification in terms of regular hand washing, structural and goods arrangement in the house in spite of people’s awareness of Lassa fever in the rural communities of Ebonyi state.
Majority of the respondents do not attend medical check-up and other Lassa fever preventive clinical therapy.
Consequent upon the above findings, this paper concludes that media Lassa fever awareness campaign is accessible to the rural populace but it has little or no impact on the eradication or prevention of the spread of the disease in the rural communities of Ebonyi state. It did not create a reasonable level of mass awareness of Lassa fever epidemic, symptoms, preventive health behaviors, and the curative measures in the rural communities of Ebonyi state. Consequently, people do not attend clinical examination or test. This is because of lack of enough media coverage and appropriate contents of Lassa fever in the campaign.
This study, therefore, recommends appropriate massive media awareness campaign and modification of media campaign con- tents to incorporate the symptoms, required preventive health behavior, curative measures and centers of Lassa fever treatment. Government should introduce a health policy of playing encompassing media awareness campaign and jingles in every news hour in both public and private owned media.
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