Influence Of Safety Procedures On Safety Awareness And Academic Performance Of Primary School Pupils

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

Influence Of Safety Procedures On Safety Awareness And Academic Performance Of Primary School Pupils


This study analyzed the influence of safety procedures on safety awareness and academic performance of primary school pupils. A total of one hundred (208) teachers including school administrators were randomly selected from primary schools. A structured self- developed questionnaire was designed in line with a 4-point Likert scale and the instrument was administered to the respondents in order to ascertain the effect of school safety on student academic performance. The data was analyzed with simple percentage and non-parametric statistics of Chi-square using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Finding shows that public schools in do not have effective safety facilities and equipment to take prompt remedial action and also, the result shows that security and discipline rules perceived by teachers and students were not strictly enforced in most public schools in Lagos State. Therefore, it was recommended that government should establish and maintain professional relationships with a variety of education stakeholders (including key policymakers and labor leaders) is important in advancing safety schools.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.1.1 Concept of Safety Procedures and Schools
    2.1.2 School Safety and Academic Performance
    2.1.3 Safeguarding Schools Environment
    2.1.4 School Safety and Students Learning
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.2.1 Behaviourist Learning Theory
    2.2.2 Cognitive Learning Theory
    2.2.3 Constructivist Learning Theory
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
  • 3.4 Research Instrument
  • 3.5 Validation of Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Procedure for Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.2 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Safety is a particularly pressing issue in urban public schools, in part because community factors such as crime and poverty play a strong role in shaping the climate of schools. A number of studies have shown that neighborhood characteristics, including crime and poverty, influence the social and educational development of children and the climate of schools (Bowen and Bowen cited in Matthew, Elaine and David, 2011).

Tsavga (2011) maintains that the learning environment plays a vital role in determining how students perform or respond to circumstances and situations around them. This implies that no society is void of environmental influences. The learning environment determines to a large extent how a student behaves and interacts, that is to say that the environment in which we find ourselves tend to mound our behaviour so as to meet the demands of life whether negatively or positively. The United Nations Study on Violence against Children reveals that children worldwide are at risk of violence in and around the school. The threats range from rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and physical beatings to verbal abuse, bullying, taunting, stereotyping and other forms of humiliation. At times, teachers, school authorities and peers are the perpetrators of such abuse (United Nations cited in UNICEF, 2009).

School safety is a pressing concern in Nigeria and the nation, and there is a need for more information about the nature of the problem and the factors that mitigate or exacerbate problems. To date, little is known about the nature of the problem across schools, the reasons safety varies in different sites, or the features of schools that lead them to have better climates. This report provides new evidence on these issues (Bowen and Bowen cited in Matthew, Elaine and David, 2011).

Children are exposed to many physical and physiological threats that jeopardize their health and safety in school besides poor nutrition. Malaria, waterborne diseases, parasitic infestations (worms are a major cause of under nutrition in school-age children), diarrhea, cholera, dehydration and HIV and AIDS are just some of the physiological risks to children. There are also physical risks that threaten health and safety, such as traffic injuries incurred en route to and from school, lacerations, fractures and other injuries during play, drowning, physical violence (corporal punishment, assaults, etc.) and sexual violence (UNICEF, 2009).

The safety of America’s students and schools periodically comes to the public’s attention when shootings or homicides of school-aged children occur. The September 2009 beating death of CPS student Derrion Albert, in which four teenagers were subsequently charged with first-degree murder, made national head- lines. Yet, physical attacks against primary school pupils often occur without substantial attention in the media. Furthermore, not all of the threats that students face occur outside of the school building. In fact, the violent crime rate among primary school pupils while at school is higher than the violent crime rate nationally among the general population.
The concept of safety is as old as human beings. Everyone is legally responsible for the safety of others. Our fore-fathers protected themselves from dangerous animals. Onuzulike (2003) stated that primitive man lived in caves or tree-tops to protect himself from dangerous wild beasts and enemy tribes.

Çelik (2000) described them as organizations where learning and efficiency is important for everyone, and where students are expected to be successful and given space to display their social skills.

Millions of children attend schools that are reasonably safe most of the time. But schools in most developing countries fail to protect children from the consequences of natural disasters and accidents. At a time of increasingly unsafe environments, and as scientists predict with relative certainty that climate change will increase both the severity and prevalence of natural disasters, schools that cannot withstand catastrophes are unacceptable (UNICEF, 2009).

According to Indiana Education Policy Centre (2000), schools that are safe and responsive have plans and procedures in place to deal with violent and disruptive behaviour that may occur. School violence prevention demands that we be prepared for the eventuality of violence.

Safety awareness and preparedness in schools are becoming major concern in the wave of insecurity in Nigeria. In the recent past, there have been perpetual reports on violence and fire outbreaks across the schools in the country. These reports are evidence that schools are not immune to destructive violence. Apparently, there exists constant fear among the leaders and a growing need to address the issue of safety in depth. In a similar vein, both Schneider (2000) and Çelik (2000) defined the safe school as a relaxed environment for managers, teachers and students.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Safety precaution should be one of the fundamental objectives of any school administrator. However, studies have shown that the environment in Nigeria is not safe due to lack of adequate and safe water supply, poor sanitation facilities, dilapidated school structures, overcrowded or unconducive classrooms (Godson, Shendell, Brown and Sridhar, 2009). Also, previous studies revealed that these prevailing conditions have a profound negative impact on the health of school children (Hamilton-Ekeke, 2012). The provision of safety facilities or precautions would enable 1863 million days of school attendance and less diarrhea illness (WHO, 2008). Stephens (2004) was of the opinion that no greater challenge exists today than creating safe schools and restoring schools to tranquil and safe places of learning. The challenge requires a major strategic commitment and involves placing school safety at the top of the educational agenda. Without safe schools, teachers cannot teach and students cannot learn. A safe school is foundational to the success of the academic mission. It is on this premise that the researcher finds it necessary to investigate the safety precaution in primary school environment.

In Nigeria, there is an increase in the number of students’ enrolment in schools with little or no regards to improving the learning environment so as to better their performance. The influence of school environment on academic performance of students has been an issue of concern to all stakeholders in education. The school administration has a responsibility to ensure that the school environment is conducive for learning (Day and Golench, 1995). This study intends to examine the influence of safety procedures on safety awareness and academic performance of primary school pupils.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to examine the influence of safety procedures on safety awareness and academic performance of primary school pupils. Specifically, the study will be guided by the following;

  1. To determine the influence of school environment on the academic performance of primary school pupils.
  2. To find out the influence of discipline of teachers and academic performance of primary school pupils.
  3. To examine the influence of safety awareness and school physical facilities on academic performance of primary school pupils.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions were formulated based on the objectives:

  1. Will there be any relationship between influence of school environment on the academic performance of primary school pupils?
  2. Will there be any relationship between discipline of teachers and academic performance of primary school pupils?
  3. Will there be any relationship between influence of safety awareness and school physical facilities on academic performance of primary school pupils?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant influence of safety awareness and school physical facilities on academic performance of primary school pupils.
  • Ha: There is a significant influence of safety awareness and school physical facilities on academic performance of primary school pupils.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The projected outcome, after the societal attitude has been identified, will be of benefit to the Ministry of Education. It will enable the ministry to be aware of the safety procedures on safety awareness and academic performance. By doing this it will enable them set up strategies that will create awareness so as to create a safer and more conducive learning environment.

For school authorities, the study provides information on the dynamics of effective safety procedures and protocols, and strengthen the ability to respond to the various safety-related issues in terms of the school environment, discipline of teachers, safety awareness and school physical facilities.

For future researchers, the findings of the study will contribute to the existing literature, inform the academic community on recent trends in safety procedures and protocols, and also serve as empirical studies for future research in related areas.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the influence of safety procedures on safety awareness and academic performance of primary school pupils. Primary schools in Lagos State will be used for this study. The variables covered safety procedures measured by the school environment, discipline of teachers, safety awareness and school physical facilities, and its influence of academic performance of the pupils.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

The following terms were used in the course of this study:


Refers to the condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, or injury.

Safety Awareness:

Refers to the process of recognizing hazards and showing a willingness to act to control any hazard present.

Safety Procedures:

A safety procedure is a step-by-step plan of how to perform a work procedure. This is used in cases where deviation from the procedure could lead to injury or accident.

Academic Performance:

Is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects.

1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Introduction

This chapter presents the final parts of the study. This comprises of the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

5.1 Summary

The study was carried out to investigate the influence of safety procedures on safety awareness and academic performance of primary school pupils. The findings of the study indicated that staff and pupils in the participating primary schools are at risk as there are no safety measures in place in the schools. Response also indicated that conditions of buildings in the selected schools are not pleasing to the teachers. The grand mean score of 2.38 is less than the cut-off point which shows that the respondents generally displeased with the condition of the school buildings are most of them are in a sorry-state. This implies the need to enhance safety procedures and school environment for students’ learning. Finally, on whether there are likely safety problems in the study area, analysis of data collected indicated that there are safety procedures put in place to protect staff and pupils from accidents, hazards, infectious diseases from unsanitary toilets, injuries that may arise from cracked floors, dilapidated furniture, collapse buildings etc. These findings are more or less a true reflection of the picture of most primary schools in Nigeria.

5.2 Conclusion

In addition to being safe, the students get used to beautiful environment with safety tips. The findings so far shows that primary school environment are not safe and conducive for student to learn, although, the respondents claimed that students feel safe with and listened to by their teachers and students are exposed to safety precaution within the school premises and also, students are willing to seek teachers’ help for bullying and violence in school. It was then concluded that, school safety involves arrangements regarding the internal and external environment of the school. However, it is not only limited to environmental adjustments but includes activities geared towards increasing school loyalty of staff, students and families. Concept of safety, safeguarding our schools as well as school safety and students learning were discussed in the previous chapter of this study. Based on the findings of this study, possible recommendations were made.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher therefore, makes the following recommendations:

  1. Safety procedures and measures should be put in place for staff and pupils of primary schools in Bayelsa State. Such safety measures should include the installations of surveillance camera in strategic places, provision of firefighting equipment, engaging professional security personnel among others;
  2. Government should build more latrine/toilet with water closet, in order to reduce or eradicate risk of infectious diseases among the pupils and staff;
  3. Government should ensure regular supervision of school buildings and facilities and carry maintenance services when necessary. This will go a long way to protect staff and pupils from the dangers of collapse building, licking roofs and dilapidated windows which can hinder smooth teaching and learning;
  4. School head should delegate or appoint safety teachers in all the primary schools in State that will report impending danger and how to nip it in the bud. This will serve as proactive measure rather than wait for the incidence to occur.

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