Determination Of Chlorine Content In Water From Ajalli Source

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Determination Of Chlorine Content In Water From Ajalli Source


Abstract


Determination of the chlorine content in water from Ajali sources was carried out in the laboratory. Chlorination has been a method for the treatment of drinking water and chlorine being an excellent disinfectant is the sole element for this practice. The world health organization (WHO) and National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) set out standard chlorine adequate for drinking water which is given as 200mg/l. This research work is based on the determination of chlorine content in raw Ajali water, treated reservoir water and Tap water. For each five samples were collected and analyzed using Mohr Method and the result for the average chlorine contents are 105.79mg/l for the Ajali raw mater, 129.70mg/l for reservoir and tap water is 178.63mg/l. In all, the results show that they correspond to the WHO/NAFDAC standard for chlorine content in drinking water.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

` Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas that dissolves easily in water. It has a pungent, noxious colour that some people can perceive smell at concentrations above 0.3 part permillion. Chlorine is an excellent disinfectant commonly added to drinking water supplies to kill harmful micro-organism. Chlorine is not only an effective disinfectant but it also reacts with ammoniamiron and other metal s and some organic compounds to improve overall water quality (white, 2000).

In parts of the world when chlorine is not added to drinking water, thousands of people die each day from waterbone disease like typhoid and cholera according to (Darnail 1999). However, the addition of chlorine in water has its limitations but its dangers, are relatively shortlived compared to the dangers of most other highly poisonous substances. Rideal et al, (2005) suggests that this is because chlorine reacts quickly with other substance in after (and forms combined chlorine) or escapes as a gas into the atmosphere. The free chlorine test measures only the amount of free or dissolved chlorine in water, but the total chlorine test measures both free and combined of chlorine.

According to Richardson et al (2007), if the water contains a lot of decaying materials, free chlorine can combine with them to form disinfection –by- products like tribhalomethanes. Though there is a limit to the use of chlorine as negative results are possible with the addition of too odour in water are often enhanced.

Fair et al, (2000) states that less than one half (0.5mg/L) of free chlorine is needed to kill bacterial without causing water to smell or taste unpleasant. Most people cannot detect the presence of chlorine on water amount (1.0mg/l). although 1.0mg/l chlorine in water is not harmful to people, it does cause problems to fish and other aquatic animals when they are expose to it over along period of time. It is very important for water suppliers to monitor closely the level of chlorine present in the water (Hodges 1997).

Risk Of Waterborne Disease

Where adequate water treatment is not readily available, the impact on public health can be devastating (White, 2002), would. Worldwide, about 1.2 billion people lack access to safe drinking water and twice that number may have adequate sanitation (Christian et al, 2001). As a result the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3.4 million people mostly children die, every year from water related diseases. Ridealetal (2005). Even where treatment is widely practiced constant vigilance is required to guard against waterborne disease outbreaks.

Well known pathogens such as Ecoli are easily controlled with chlorination but can cause deadly outbreak give condition if inadequate or disinfection (Richardson, et al 2007). Some emerging pathogens like osporiolianare resistance to chlorination and can appear even in high quality water supplies. Cryptosporidium was the cause of the longest reported drink water in United state (Craun et al, 2002). The new regulation from U.S Environmental Protection Agency will require water system to monitor cryptosporidium and adopt a range of treatment options based on source water cryptosporidium concentrations. Most water systems are expected to meet EPA requirement while continuing to use chlorination.


1.2 Statement of Problem

There has been high prevalence of water borne disease in
Enugu metropolis judging from the hospital statistics hence the need to know if the cause has been from the method of water treatment employed in the purification of drinking water supplied to the municipality.


1.3 Aims of the Study

  1. To determine the chlorine content to water from Ajalli water source.
  2. To compare the chlorine content in the drinking water in Enugu metropolis with World Health Organization standard.
  3. The study will also evaluate the effect of bad water chlorination and the harms of indisinfecter drinking water.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This research work is meant to elucidate the actual concentration of chlorine in Enugu drinking water and to make known the processes or steps taken in the treatment of the water. Also to establish whether some prevalent disease could be traced to the way drinking water in Enugu is treated.


1.5 Scope of the Study

This research work is limited to the determination of the chlorine content in raw Ajalli water source the treatment of water and the tap water within Enugu.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

The maximum safe chlorine content in drinking water as stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO) and National Agency for Food and drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC) being 200mg/L as the result of the titration experiment of the different samples showed that they are withing the standard for the raw Ajalli water, the results are 99.4mg/L, 110.05mg/L, 113.6mg/L, 99.4mg/L and 106.5mg/L for the five samples.

The source of chlorine in the Ajalli raw may have emanated from the lack of surveillance at the banks of the raw water, hence making the introduction of contaminants by human or industries not to be managed. The reservoir water has their chlorine content as 129mg/L, 134.9mg/L, 134.9mg/L, 127.8mg/L and 131.35mg/L which shows that the reservoir or samples collected from different points from the reservoir lies within the WHO/NAFDAC Standard.

The chlorine content in the tap water collected from different locations in Enugu metropolis is a bit higher than that of reservoir and their results are 170.4mg/l, 168.98mg/L, 177.5mg/L 184.6mg/L and 191.7mg/L. This is because of the residual disinfection level of chlorine as designated by WHO standard which will be capable of preventing microbial re-growth and help preventing microbial regrowth and help protect treated water through out the distribution system upto the consumer.


5.2 Conclusion

Drinking water chlorination can be a safe method of water disinfection as long as the right and qualified personal are used if constant check is kept on the fluctuation of the amount of chlorine in water and if the required concentration of chlorine is ensured at the consumer’s end, as is the case in developed countries that uses chlorination. Other methods such as ozonolysis, ultraviolet ordination etc should be applied in conjunction with chlorination to ensure that all contaminate found in drinking water could be eliminated before the water gets to the tap. Also wasten treatment can be improved if Water Corporation Agency can provide surveillance over the raw water to avoid the input of containments by human or industrial activities.

Currently, no ideal method exists for quantifying chlorine in water because all common method of chlorine analysis display some lack of specificity and are not adequately selective to be completely of interference.


5.3 Recommendation

I recommend that skilled labour should be employed by the water corporation especially in the disinfection unit that can be able to give concentration of chlorine used against a particular quantity of water which unfortunately has not been the case where you have lay-men handling the disinfection.

The manner at which they approach their duties calls for the need for every family to obtain a quality home water purifier or filtration system. Some of these devices will not only remove chlorine from your tap water but herbicides, pesticides and other dangerous water supply contaminants. The whole water house purifier is capable of removing chlorine sediments, bad tastes and odour from the water flowing through every faucets. These counter tap water filter and under count water filtration devices produce safe, clean water for drinking and cooling. They remove not only chlorine but also lead, a wide range of chemical and crusts [chlorine resistant organism].

For maximum protection from water supply contaminates, all household should get both a whole house water purification system and under counter or counter purifier.


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