Effect Of Acute Oral Administration Of Senna Occidentalis Seed In Rat On Lipid Profile And Glucose

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Effect Of Acute Oral Administration Of Senna Occidentalis Seed In Rat On Lipid Profile And Glucose


Abstract


The effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on lipid profile and glucose was studied. Twenty albino rats equally divided into four experimental groups were used. One group served as control and received the carrier solvent treatment. Three test groups were treated with S. occidentalis extract at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight respectively. The experiment lasted for 14 days after oral administration after which the rats were sacrificed and blood collected for lipid and glucose profile evaluation. Liver-body weight ratio was computed and liver histoarchitecture was investigated. The results showed that all haematological parameters were significantly (P<0.05) affected except the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume. There were also significant (P<0.05) alterations in the activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as the levels of total protein, albumin and globulin in the serum. No significant (P>0.05) alterations were observed in the computed liver-body weight ratio but marked alterations in histoarchitecture of the liver cells were present. These alterations in the haematological parameters, liver function enzymes and histological evaluation suggest a selective toxicity of the extract on the animals.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Overview of Senna Occidentalis
  • 2.2 Economic and Other Uses
  • 2.3 Toxicity
  • 2.4 Description
  • 2.5 Similar Species
  • 2.6 Environmental and Other Impacts
  • 2.7 Management
  • 2.8 Acute Toxicity
  • 2.9 Experimental Values
  • 2.10 Glucose and Lipids

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Plant Material and Authentication
  • 3.2 Assay Kits and Enzyme Substrates
  • 3.3 Preparation of Extract
  • 3.4 Animal Grouping and Extract Administration
  • 3.5 Lipid Profile Analysis
  • 3.6 Determination of Biochemical Parameters
  • 3.7 Statistical Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Tropical forest incidentally represents major sources of medicinal plants. The medicinal properties of plants are mainly attributed to the presence of various simple and complex organic compounds present in them. These compounds are metabolite like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponinsetc (Subbram, 1997).
Cassia Occidentalis Linn also known as Sennaoccidentalis or coffee Senna is a small tree that grows 5-8m high and is found in many tropical areas of south America, including warmer climate and tropical areas of south, central and north America. It seeds found in long seed pods are roasted and made into coffee-like beverage (Bardhan, 1985). Invivo studies of aqueous leaves extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, smooth muscles relaxant, antispasmodic, weak uterine stimulant, vasoconstrictor and antioxidant activities in laboratory animals (Bardhan,1985). Toxicological studies of the aerial part, leaves and roots (mostly organic extract) of Cassia Occidentalis Linn (fedegoso) have been published by several research groups (Bardhan, 1985).

The organs mostly affected by toxins from medicinal plants include Liver, heart and kidney. The effect on these organs can be evaluated by determining the activities of enzymes specific to these organs in serum. Presence of the enzymes specific to these organs is a good indicator of damage to these organs (Zilva and Pannal, 1975).

Indiscriminate usage of C. occidentalis leaves in treatment of diseases in Nigeria and many other countries justify carrying this research and many of its kind.

Sennaoccidentalis is one of the most widely used herbal plants among people of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world (Veronique and Gabriel, 2013). It is used for various therapeutic purposes in traditional medicine (Yadav et al., 2010, Silva et al., 2011). In Nigeria, this plant is locally called Sanga-sanga or Raidore in Hausa language (Nuhu and Aliyu, 2008; Sadiq et al., 2012); Akidiagbara in Igbo language and Abo rere in Yoruba language (Egharevba et al., 2010). Roots, leaves, flowers and seeds of Sennaoccidentalis are the different parts of the plant used in medication (Veronique and Gabriel, 2013). The lethal dose (LD50) of aqueous leaf extract of Sennaoccidentalis was found to be safe up to 5000 mg/kg body weight (Silva et al., 2011; Shafeen et al., 2012; Tanimu and Wudil, 2012).

The plant has been used in different parts of the world by the traditional healers in treating different forms of diseases. It has been documented in literatures that extract of Sennaoccidentalis has antimicrobial activity (Mariano-Souza et al., 2010; Mohammed et al.,2012), larvicidal and pupicidal activity (Ibrahim et al., 2010), antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity (Gowrisri et al., 2012), antiinflammatory actions (Yadav, 2010), antimalarial activity (Gwarzo et al., 2014), antianxiety and antidepressant activity (Shafeen et al., 2012), analgesic activity (Silva et al., 2011) and antidiabetic activity (Emmanuel et al., 2010; Laxmi et al., 2010; Onakpa and Ajagbonna, 2012).

According to World Health Organization (WHO), due to poverty and lack of access to modern medicines; about 6580% of the world’s populations living in developing countries depend essentially on plants for primary health care (Calixto, 2000). Traditional healers dispense herbal preparations without much consideration to the quantity of the extract ingested by their clients.

Despite the growing demand for herbal medicines, there are still concerns associated with not only their use, but also their safety (Winston and Maimes, 2007). Thousands of decades ago, people most especially rural dwellers relied heavily on traditional medicine using herbs for treatment of illnesses; this has been the practice in Northern Nigeria in particular Sokoto State and all over the world (Nuhu and Aliyu, 2008). The kidneys serve essential regulatory roles in animals by removing excess organic molecules from the blood as waste products of metabolism (Arthur and John, 2006; Inderbir, 2007). Kidneys are one of the vital organs affected by accumulation of toxic substances in the body; exposure to toxic substances can cause injury or death of tissues in the kidney resulting in leakage of essential biomolecules into the blood stream alongside with histomorphological changes (Vashishtha et al., 2009; Nwaehujor et al., 2011).

People consume Sennaoccidentalis extract either alone or mixed up with other mineral and organic matter as therapy (Garba et al., 2015). The leaves of this plant are widely used in our community without enough knowledge of its possible side effects on vital organs. Therefore, this study sought to investigate theeffect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on lipid profile and glucose.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Plants are endowed with various phytochemical molecules such as vitamins, terpenoids, phenolic acids, lignins and other secondary metabolites (Cai et al., 2003; Zheng and Wang, 2003) because they are plants derived molecules, they are often perceived as “natural” and therefore “safe” (Debelo et al., 2016). The value of these medicinal plants in drug discovery is known with their traditional folk remedies which have always guided scientists to search for new medications in order to maintain and promote healthy life for humans and animals (Achterberg, 2013).

Indiscriminate use of these plant extracts, either as concoction or infusion, at the primary health care level all over the world (WHO, 2008) and lack of standardized dose regimen have placed the human subject at great risk of toxic effect of these plant extracts. subtropical regions of the world, including Nigeria, It is commonly known as coffee senna (Haselwood and Motter, 1966), stinking weed (Henty et al., 1975) and in Nigeria, it is called Raidorai in Hausa language (northern Nigeria) (Blench, 2007). The folklore uses have been reported for antiseptic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties (Gained et al., 1966). A number of research reports have also published on Sennaoccidentalis such as its hepatoprotective effect (Nwaehujor et al., 2011) antimicrobial and antioxidant activities (Odeja, et al., 2016).

Inspite of the myriad of uses to which this plant has been put, reports on its safety have remained scanty in the open literature. This study therefore aimed at investigating the effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on lipid profile and glucose.


1.3 Aim and Objectives

The main aim of this research work is to investigate the effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on lipid profile and glucose.

The specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To evaluate the safety of aqueous leaf extract of Sennaoccidentalis on wistar rats
  2. To determine the effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on lipid profile
  3. To determine the effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on glucose

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How safe is the aqueous leaf extract of Sennaoccidentalis on wistar rats?
  2. What is the effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on lipid profile?
  3. What is the effect of acute oral administration of sennaoccidentalis seed in rat on glucose?

1.5 Significance of the Study

A medicinal plant has been described as a plant with one or more of its organs containing substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which precursors are used for the synthesis of drugs. The findings of this study will indicate the safety parameters for the use and application of the sennaoccidentalis plant in human treatment.
Most medicinal plants used by people are almost always taken in aqueous form either dissolved in cold water or boiled in water and not in organic solvent. It was also reported that the aqueous extract is less toxic than the organic extract.Based on this fact, the toxicity of the aqueous extract is aimed at, to ascertain the toxicity and otherwise on our local users. Most of the herbs used in treating various diseases are used indiscriminately. This attract the interest of many researchers in science and medicine to undertake researches that will significantly unfold the medical importance, mechanism of action as well as toxic effect (if any) of these medicinal plants. This study will be useful as it contributes to that empirical body of knowledge.


1.6 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter presents the materials and methods. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the conclusion and recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The results of the present study have indicated that aqueous leaf extract of S. occidentalis exhibited selective toxicity in rats and may pose significant risk if consumed indiscriminately at doses up to and above 500 mg/kg body weight because of its effect on haematological parameters, serum enzymes, indices of liver function. The phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of Sennaoccidentalis found in our locality revealed absence of anthraquinones probably that could be attributed to the non-lethal histopathological effects seen on the kidneys. In this study, oral administration of up to 3000mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract of Sennaoccidentalis did not produce significant effects on kidney of Wistar rats thereby suggesting it non-lethal effect on the kidneys, lipid and glucose profile.


5.2 Recommendations

Based on the conflicting idea that the plant is both pharmacologically active as well as toxic to some extent by previous researchers, a lot need to be discovered by scientist on the cost benefit analysis of this plant, by further investigating the pharmacological activity of this plant extract via aqueous cold water percolation method. A further study on isolation, purification and characterization of the bioactive compounds in the extract is recommended.
The pharmacology as well as the toxicological studies of different methods of extraction is recommended.
The toxicity of various route of exposure e.g. intraperitonealetc. is also recommended.


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