Production Of Wine From Ripe Pawpaw Fruit Carica Papaya

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Production Of Wine From Ripe Pawpaw Fruit Carica Papaya


Abstract


Wine can be produced from paw-paw carioca papaya. Ripe paw-paw were peeled, sliced and homogenized using a weaving blender to obtain 2.5 litres of paw-paw ‘MUST’ the fresh ‘must’ be added 0.49 litres of sodium metabisulphate to sterilize it, and get it ready for fermentation.

Fermentation was started by inoculating the ‘must’ with 15-25 hours grown yeast + culture (starter culture and primary fermentation), which will last for days and racked before secondary fermentation which lasted for 14 days. The young wine was racked OH from ‘less’ filtered and pasteurized. Maturation was allowed for 4 weeks only because of time constraints. Physicochemical of wine were carried out and determined to be PH-4 .0 specific gravity 1.0406, titrable acidity and alcoholic content ” 80% (v/u).

Microbiological assay of the wine was carried out and the microbial load was total plate court 23 x 105 coliforms court 10 x 105 and yeast court 5 x 105. This shows that the wine was contaminated during processing and is not recommended for consumption. It is possible to produce accepted table wine from ripe paw-paw when the microbiology is under control.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Classification of wine
  • 1.2 Objective of the study
  • 1.3 Specific objective
  • 1.4 Statement of problem
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of study

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials and methods
  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.3 Pipe Paw-paw
  • 3.4 Racknig
  • 3.5 Maturation and ageing
  • 3.6 Microbiological quality control of the Paw-paw wine
  • 3.7 Plate method
  • 3.8 Streaking method
  • 3.9 Gram staining
  • 3.10 Alcoholic determination
  • 3.11 Determination of titrable acidity
  • 3.12 Estimation of total reducing sugar
  • 3.13 PH determination
  • 3.14 Specific gravity determination
  • 3.15 Bottling, pasteurization and corking
  • 3.16 Flow sheet for the production of table wine

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Result and discussion
  • 4.1 Media number of organism
  • 4.2 Culture media composition and preparation
  • 4.3 Macconkey agar
  • 4.4 Dextrose agar
  • 4.5 Microbial isolation of fungi
  • 4.6 Characteristic and isolate from wine sample

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Conclusion and recommendation
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • Reference

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Wine can be defined as any products obtained from the alcoholic fermentation of juice of grape by yeast sacharomyces cerevisae, followed by subsequent aging process, fraizer and westhoft, (1978).

Amerine et al (1979), defined wine as mixture consisting of both organic and inorganic compounds. The amount of components found in wine is estimated at 400 Kunkee et al (1977), some of these compounds are esters, fuse oil, fixed acid, fartaric, malic and citric acid, sugar aldahydes, tanirs and pectins. The flavours developed during maturation are attributed to the presence of acid in the wine and also to the organoheptic quality of the wine without which the wine appear insipid. Another function of these acids is to inhibit the growth of contaminants Amerine et al, (1972).

Good quality wine depend to a large extent of the initial sugar, acid, water and other chemical content of the fruit to be used Stater (1972). Presently, wine is produced from different types of fruits such as tomato, cashew, pineapple, banana, grape and Paw-paw. In fact, any edible products e.g. grapes, fruits or honey which contains sufficient moisture of sugar and other nutrient can be used to make wine.


1.1 Classification Of Wine

Wine can be classified in several ways, many wines are labeled by class namely such as white dimmer wine, and red desert wine. Others have more specific names from the fruits, which they are produced, such classes are:

i) Natural Wine

These are usually called table wine; they are consumed at a sitting once they are open. They contain less alcohol about 5-14% e.g. Burgundy and claret, they may be dry or sweet.

ii) Fortified Wine

They are sweeter and richer than natural wine. They contain 15-21% alcohol, e.g. sweet Cherry.

iii) Sparkling Wine

They contain bubbling of carbon (iv) oxide, this differentiate it from other wine and other soft drinks. They contain about 20-30% alcohol, e.g. champagne.

Microbiological quality control of the wine produced from ripe paw-paw should be carried out to check the mere presence of microorganism and it numerical strength of it


1.2 Objective Of The Study

The aim of this study is to create a way of producing good quality table wine from ripe Paw-paw fruit.


1.3 Specific Objective

This study is specifically designed

  1. To produce wine from sound ripe paw-paw fruit by yeast sacharomyces cerevisea as a means of fermentation.
  2. To carry out microbiological quality control of produced wine.
  3. To increase the user of paw-paw in commercial products.
  4. To determine the alcoholic content, PH, acidity, specific gravity and sugar content of the wine.

1.4 Statement Of Problem

Paw-paw is a fast perishable fruit without common storage or preservatives, mechanism, paw-paw rots soon after hamlets leading to heavy commercial losses. Therefore, conversion of paw-paw pulp into wine could be away of salvaging the loss from rot.


1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO : Paw-paw can be used to produce good quality tabled wine and as a guide to increase its shell life or storage.
  • HI : Paw-paw cannot be used to produce good quality table wine without the use of enzyme and yeast saccharomyses cervisea.

1.6 Limitations Of The Study

The production of sparking microbe free table wine is limited by facilities available in science laboratory technology. Use of U.V light at production and proper bottling with carbonization could not be carried out and maturation is limited by time factor.


1.7 Significance Of The Study

The result of this study will be beneficial to a lot of people and organizations.

  1. It will serve as a reference point and for teaching aids.
  2. It will serve as a source of research material.
  3. It is expected that the result of this study will give clue to students who may wish to do his or her industrial attachment to any breweries.

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The wine produced has an alcoholic content of 8% (v/u) and this shows that the wine produced can be classified as sweet table wine, which confirms with the standard range of 6-14% wine from fruit juice. It has PH of which is above the accountable standard and this result is a harsh taste of the wine. The flavour, colour and bousuat of the wine has not well develop due to ageing and pasteurization processes which has not lasted for required period. To get rid of this harshness and mature flavour and colour of the wine, it has to be allowed to age during the process the acidity decrease. Amerine et al, (1979) stated that table wine age for short period of about 6-12 months.

The wine is not carbonated during bottling, so, it is not sparkling, it is important wine considering the fact, that aging does not last for the required period expected to last as a result of time constraint.

Therefore, when proper aging takes place, one can then observe the desired qualities such as flavour, colour and taste. During microbiological assay of the wine the microorganisms, found were staphylococcus spp.

The presence of staphylococcus may be because of unprotected environment, contaminated equipment, handling, during bottling or even personal. Wine is supposed to be produced under U.V light. The presence of sacchoromyces spp may be due to improper pasteurization or poor filtration. Wine is not supposed to contain any microorganism as specified by NAFDAC, so the wine is unfit for consumption.


5.2 Recommendations

The production of wine from paw-paw is an economic valuable process. This process when economized will go a long way to alleviate the huge expenditure on the importation of wine. To reduce the microbial load to zero as specified by NAFDAC, the production of paw-paw wine should be carried out under U.V light or well sterilized environment. Proper pasteurization should be done after production to kill the yeast remaining after fermentation, which might even burst the cork, due to carbondioxide produce.

Carbonation should be done during bottling to make the wine sparkle. Aging and maturation should be allowed for a period of 6-12 months, so that the colour, taste, and buguent of the wine will be developed.


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