Proximate Composition And Analysis Of Cucumber And Spinach Leaves

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Proximate Composition And Analysis Of Cucumber And Spinach Leaves


Abstract


The proximate composition and analysis of cucumber and spinach leaves was to assess the nutritional value of cucumber and spinach leaves by analysis the amino acid profile and mineral constituents. The results showed that cucumber have the moisture content of 96% and spinach 95%, fat content 2.4% on cucumber while spinach leaves 4.6%, crude fiber content on cucumber 44% and spinach 41.5%, Ash content of cucumber 99% and spinach leaves 138.9 respectively. Base on these finding, cucumbers and spinach are good source of vitamins and minerals needed for building of the body.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • List of tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Aim of Study
  • 1.3 Statement of Problem
  • 1.4 Significance of Study
  • 1.5 Limitation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Types of Spinach and Cucumber
  • 2.2 Nutritional Value of Spinach and Cucumber
  • 2.3 Sources of Contamination
  • 2.3.1 Pre-Harvest Environment
  • 2.3.2 Handling and Storages
  • 2.3.3 Cut Cucumber and Spinach Processing
  • 2.3.4 Mitigation of Contamination
  • 2.3.5 Minimizing the Risk of illness Association with Potentially contaminated Fruit
  • 2.4 Bacteria Contamination

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Materials (see appendix)
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.2.1 Moisture Content of Cucumber and Spinach Leaves
  • 3.2.2 Fat Content of Cucumber and Spinach Leaves
  • 3.2.3 Crude Fiber Content Under Cucumber and Spinach Leaves
  • 3.2.4 Ash Content Under Cucumber and Spinach Leaves
  • 3.2.5 Protein Content under Cucumber and Spinach Laves
  • 3.2.6 Carbohydrate Content Under Cucumber and Spinach

Chapter Four

4.0 Result


Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

List of Table


  • Table I: Proximate Composition And Analysis Of Cucumber And Spinach Leaves

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Spinach is vegetable fruit which can be produce fresh. Many fruits that are in a botanical sense are true fruits that are actually treated as vegetables, these culinary vegetables include cucurbits, e.g (Squash, cucumber and spinach). The spinach is thought to have originated in India -where it is found wild and is cultivated in many diverse forms. Accessions of cucumis satinus L. Var hardwickl is related to the original ancestors of the spinach Maynard et al., (2000). Secondary centers of diversity for the spinach exist in China and near east. Species are cucumis hystrix from China and the African. Cucumis hystrix from china and the African cucumis, such as cucumber (Spinach and Wild relative (Douglas et al., 2010).

Spinach and cucumber were probably domesticated in Asia and then introduces in the 1700s. Cucumbers were brought to America by Christopher Columbus. The spinach is grown for its fruit which are eaten fresh or picked in most countries but which are also eaten fried. Bater et al (1990) slicing and picking of spinach and cucumber fruits are mostly water but they provide some vitamin A and C, especially when picked with dill and other species. Spinach and cucumber are the ideal food for people having trouble with body weight because it is mostly water and some fibers and few calories cucumber cause barging and mild stomach upset in people when eaten raw but not when soaked in vinegar or pickled before eating.

Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea) is an edible following plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. It is native to central and south western Asia. It is an annual plant (rarely biennia), which grows to a height of up to 30cm. Spinach may leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to triangular-based, very variable in size from about 2 โ€“ 30cm long and 1.15cm broad, with large leaves at the base of the plant and small leaves higher on the flowering stem. The flowers are inconspicuous. Yellow green, 3 โ€“ 4mm diameter maturing into a small, hard, dry, lumpy fruit eluster 5 โ€“ 10mm across containing several seeds )Common spinach, spinacia oleracea, was long considered to be in the chinopodiaceae family, but in 2003 the chinopodiaceae family was combined with the Amarantuaceae family under the family name โ€˜Amarantuaceaeโ€™ in the order caryophyllaes.

Within the Amaratuaceae family there are now a subfamily Amaratuoldeae and a subfamily chenopodioideae, for the amaratus and the chenopods, respectively (Rosemary et al, 1995).


1.2 Aim of Study

  1. To identify the ash, moisture content of cucumber and spinach.
  2. To identified the protein, carbohydrate, fat content , ash content and crude of fiber content of cucumber and spinach.

1.3 Statement of Problem

Spinach fruit contain micro-organisms, some of which are pathogenic and other are non-pathogenic spoilt spinach fruits produces serious threat to the safety of the consumers and reduce quality as well as the acceptability of the product in food salad.


1.4 Significance of Study

The importance of this project work is to analysis the composition of spinach and cucumber which enable the society on how to improve the cultivation of spinach and cucumber as well as the consumption.


1.5 Limitation of the Study

This project work is limited to the proximate composition and analysis of cucumber and spinach. It was limited to this two vegetable because of financial constrain.


Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

The result shows the composition and analysis of cucumber and spinach leaves. The percentage composition of moisture content is 96% on cucumber while spinach leaves is 95% fat content of cucumber is 2.4 and that of spinach leaves is 4.6%, cucumber have the highest crude fibre of 44 while spinach is lower 41.5. The Ash content of cucumber is 99% and spinach leave is 68, the protein and carbohydrate content of both of them is 28, 29.75 and 168.4, 138.9 respectively.


5.2 Conclusion

Form the results of the analyses, it can be shown that cucumber and spinach leaves could be important green leaves vegetables as a source of nutrient to food supplement.

Based on the findings cucumber have the highest composition than spinach in the respective parameter, moisture content, crude fibre, ash content and carbohydrate content while spinach have the highest of fat content and protein both of the vegetable are good for human consumption.


5.3 Recommendation

Cucumber and spinach are rich in vitamins and minerals based on this findings it is recommended that cucumber and spinach should be used in making sandwiches and salads due to its high nutritional value and also to should be given to pregnant women and children so as to meet up the body nutrient


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