The Antibacterial Activity On Three Types Of Medicated Soaps (Detol, Isol, Tura) On Staphylococcus Aureus From Wound Infection

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

The Antibacterial Activity On Three Types Of Medicated Soaps (Detol, Isol, Tura) On Staphylococcus Aureus From Wound Infection


Abstract


This project work was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of three types of medicated soap on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection. A total number of 20 sample were collected from different individuals with wound infection within the age range of 9 – 49 years form the orthopedic hospital in Enugu. The highest occurrence of organisms was within the age range of 9 – 15 years while the lowest was within the age range of 23 – 48 and 37 – 49 has no occurrence. While the mean of inhibition was 13.1mm in dettol soap followed by Isol soap 8.8mm and the least Tura 7.1mm. The staphylococcus aureus isolated were also sensitive to the commercial antibiotics used as couplers. The mean zones of inhibition was highest in Ampiclox followed by gentamacin and the least is penicillin. The result showed that medicated soaps were effective against staphylococcus aureus involved in wound infection in humans.


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Aim and objectives of the study
  • 1.3 Statement of problem
  • 1.4 Hypothesis
  • 1.5 Justification of the study
  • 1.6 Limitation of the study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Medical relevance of antimicrobial soap
  • 2.2 Normal skin microbiota and soap

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Method

  • 3.1 Materials (see appendix )
  • 3.1.1 Procedure of material
  • 3.1.2 Method
  • 3.2 Sterilization
  • 3.2.1 Preparation of media
  • 3.2.2 Collection of the sample
  • 3.2.3 Disc preparation
  • 3.2.4 Preparation of the soap solution
  • 3.2.5 Antibacterial activity of the three medicated soaps and three antibiotics as control drugs on staphylococcus aureus isolated
  • 3.2.6 Antibiotic sensitivity testing on the isolated staphylococcus aureus

Chapter Four

Result

  • 4.1 Identification of bacterial isolates
  • 4.2.1 Table three

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Appendix
  • References

List of Tables


  • Table 1: Frequency of the best studied skin microbes
  • Table 2: Age Distribution number of sample with Staphylococcus aureus
  • Table 3: Identification of bacteria isolates
  • Table 4: Sensitivity test using three medicated soap and three antibiotics indicating their zones of inhibition

List of Figures


  • Figure 1: Image of staphylococcus epidermis

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to Pelage et al (1986) antibacterial activity is the ability to either destroy bacteria or inhibit their growth. This is significant with respects to the human body in preventing sepsis and skin infections. Also Derland (1981) states that medicated soap have the germicidal substance like chloroxylenol, Trichlorocarbamide, potassium, Mercury iodide etc. incorporated into them in order to enhance their antibacterial activity. These germicide substance are normally added in a specified amount and percentage of the substance used are always stated on the soap case or inside the leaflet which contains the information on how to use the soap for various purposes.
Anon (1984) states that soap may be defined as a chemical compound resulting from the interaction of fatty acids, oil caustic soda (alkali) possessing the characteristic soap like properties of detergents, surface tension lowering wetting and emulsifiying power and gel formation.

Carboxylic acids with long, unbranched chains of carbon atoms are called fatty acids because they are formed form fats by a hydrolysis reaction called saponification. Palmitic acid is an example of fatty acid eg C15 H31COOH (Hexadecanoic acid).

All fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycoside compounds (esters) of trihydric alcohol, glycosides and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid. The chemistry of soap manufacturing may be expressed by the following equation which is known as saponification.

C2H5COOH + NaOH C2H5COONa+ + H2O

Ethanoic acid Caustic soda Sodium Water

Ethanoate

Anon (1984) further explain that abacterial soap contain existentially of the following 0.1 to 3% weight based on the total weight of the soap.

0 to 10% by weight based on the total weight of the soap in a compound of formular R – CO – N1 – CH2COOH.
Here R represent an akyl or alkene group.

Antibacterial soap is any cleaning product to which active antibacterial ingredient have been added, these chemicals kill bacteria and microbes, but are no more effective at deactivating viruses than any other kind of soap or detergent, and they also kill non pathogenic bacterial.

Ingredients

Most liquid hand and body soaps contain antibacterial chemicals. Triclosan is a common ingredients. Since there is a great variety of bacteria, effectiveness against any type of bacterium does not ensure that it is effective against unrelated types. These are generally only contained at preservative, level unless the product is marked antibacterial, antiseptic or germicidal.

Triclosan, Triclocarbon / Trichlorocarbamide and PCMx / Chloroxylenol are commonly used for antibacterial and deodorant effect in consumer products.

Some soaps contain tetrasodium EDTA which is a chelating agent that sequenters metals that the bacterial require metals and so it is actually an antimicrobial agent that is widely used even as a preservative, it appears to be fairly harmless in the environment.

Sykes (2000) described sterilization as the complete destruction of all living. In medical sense it is often used in a restricted sense to refer to the destruction of pathogenic organisms only.

According to William (1979) wound is defined as description of cellular and anatomic continuity while its healing is the restoration of continuity. That biological process can only be accomplished by regeneration, cell proliferation and collage production which can be alleviated washing the woundsurface especially with medicated soap which due to it concert of phenolic compound help in keeping off organisms like staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa always from the wound to a certain stage. Wound can also result when the operative barrier of the skin is breached by traumatic invasion or whether it is caused by trauma or internationally by surgery. The open area is susceptible to microbial invasion and once a wound has become infected pus form in the injured area resulting to wound abbess.

Baker et al described antiseptics as the most convenient way of preventing infection usually by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and most disinfectant when suitable diluted have the antiseptic action. Different method are employed for the destruction of bacterial or for getting rid of them and those method can be conveniently divided into chemical, physical and mechanical methods.

Baker et al (1985) explained that chemical agent function as a sterilizing agent by the following lethal mechanisms.

  1. Disruption of the cell membrane.
  2. Interfering with the orgamatic systems of the organism enzyme poison.
  3. Co-agulation of protein
  4. Oxidation.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study

  1. To isolate Staphylococcus aureus from wound infection.
  2. To determine the antibacterial activity of three medicated soap on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection.

1.3 Statement of Rpobelm

Since Dorland (1981) state medicated soaps have germicidal substance like chloroxylenol, potassium, mercuric iodide, trichlorocarbamide etc incorporated into them in order to greatly their antibacterial activity. It is therefore necessary to investigate the antibacterial activity of three medicated soap (Isol dettol, and Tura) on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection.


1.4 Hypothesis

Medicated soap have antibacterial activity Medicated soaps have no antibacterial activity.


1.5 Justification of the Study

The result of the project work will indicate the antibacterial activity of medicated soap; and if favourable, then medicated soap can be used for washing the surface of minor wound infection before the application of further medication.


1.6 Limitation of the Study

The study is limited to three types of medicated soaps which are

  1. Isol medicated soap
  2. Dettol medicated soap
  3. Tural medicated soap

Chapter Five


5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Discussion

The antibacterial activity of three types of medicated soap on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection was conducted. Out of 20 sample within the age range of 9 – 49 years the most predominant bacteria organism isolates was Staphylococcus aureus followed by pseudomonas aeroginosa. The next is Staphylococcus epidermis while the least was Escherichia coli. Staphylococcus is coagulase positive which differentiates it from the other species. Almost every person will have some type of S aureus infection during a life time ranging in severity form food poisoning or major skin infections to severe life threatening infections. The coagulase-negative Staphylococci are normal human flora and sometimes cause infection often associated with implanted devices such as joint prostheses, shunta. This study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to the three medicated soap the median zone of inhibition was highest in Dettol medicated soap followed by Isol and the least is Tura. The Staphylococcus aureus was also sensitive to commercial control drug. The mean zone of inhibition was highest in Ampliclox followed by Gentamycin and the least is penicillin, there was a close relationship in zone of inhibition between the three medicated soaps and the commercially antibiotics activities as control.


5.3 Conclusion

From the sensitivity test it was found out that medicated soap were effective against Staphylococcus aureus effecting wound in human as comparable to drugs (antibiotics). This is because medicated soaps have phenobic contents, if one subject himself or herself to cleaning or bathing with medicated soap during the time of hurts or cuts on the skin there is the likelihood of reducing microbial load of Staphylococcus aureus which is a normal commercial of the skin. The reduction of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin at this time will prevent or minimize its involvement wound infection. However, constant washing of the body with medicated soap will not be advisable for it, but it will remove drastically the normal flora of the skin and this itself will pose a problem.


5.3 Recommendation

Since medicated soaps have been found inhibitor, it is then advised to be used in bathing at the time one gets hurt or cuts on the skin. It is also recommended to wash surface of cuts immediately, especially in children with medicated soap before medication is given. There is need for further work to carried out on other organism like Escherichia coli etc that are involved in wound infections.


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