Teacher’s Perception Of Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum And It’s Implications On Implementation At Senior Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Curriculum Studies

Teacher’s Perception Of Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum And It’s Implications On Implementation At Senior Secondary Schools

Chapter Five

Conclusions and Recommendations

Summary of the Research Work

Chapter one contains the background to the study which laid a foundation for an examination of the effects of entrepreneurship education and teaching perception on entrepreneurial intentions of Nigerian senior secondary school students. Discussion on the statement of research problem was hinged on the need to reexamine the effects of the components of entrepreneurship programme and students‘ teaching orientation, on the expression of entrepreneurial implementation intentions in Nigerian universities. The specific objectives of the study were stated, and research questions and hypotheses were stated correspondingly. This was followed by a section highlighting the significance of this study to various groups and stakeholders. The chapter also showed that the focus of the study was on the perceptions of students‘ and teachers, on entrepreneurship education programmes in Nigerian universities. Emphasis was laid on the four pioneer senior secondary schools to offer a degree programme in entrepreneurship, based on the fact that best practices in entrepreneurship education are obtainable in these schools

Chapter Two presented a conceptual framework, which involved discussions on relevant concepts and conceptual linkages such as nature of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship and the Nigerian Economy, Nigerian government policy support for entrepreneurship, education and entrepreneurship development, senior secondary school education and entrepreneurship development, the concept of entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship education programmes, development of Academic entrepreneurship in Nigeria, the concept of entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurship as an intentional behavior, entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial actions, concept of teaching orientation, mediating role of teaching orientation, and other relevant conceptual discussions. A discussion was also carried out on theories that underpinned the study which are; human capital entrepreneurship theory, experiential teaching theory and implementation intention theory. Empirical studies such as the following were discussed in alignment with the specific objectives of this study: Bilic, Prka, and Vidovic (2011) on the influence of education and curriculum on entrepreneurship orientation, idea generation and entrepreneurial intention. Detienne and Chandler (2004), on opportunity identification and its role in the entrepreneurial classroom, Bulte and Pilot (2013) on fostering the competence of science students in identifying business opportunities, Arasti, Falavarjani, and Imanipour (2012) on Teaching methods in entrepreneurship for graduate students and Amalia (2012) on the role of the senior secondary schoolsupport environment and development of student entrepreneurship. This chapter was concluded with the presentation of the gaps identified in review of literature.

Chapter Three described the methodology for the research. The study adopted a descriptive research design to establish trends related to the objectives of the study, and sequential explanatory mixed methods (Quantitative validated by Qualitative methods) was employed using survey questionnaire and semi –structured interview for data collection. The population of this study included all students in the first four (4) senior secondary schoolsin Nigeria to offer a degree in entrepreneurship which was fifty thousand nine-hundred (50,900) students. The sample size was determined based on the formula recommended by Godden (2004), and a sample size of six hundred (600) students was used to represent the study population as computed. The sampling frame comprised the list of all undergraduate students in the four selected universities. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted, which involved stratified sampling and simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data and for the qualitative data twenty (20) semi-structured interviews (five in each school) was carried out and data was collected with the aid of a Dictaphone and field notes. A pilot study was conducted to establish the reliability of the study. Forty (40) copies of the questionnaire were distributed to Covenant senior secondary school students, Ota Ogun State Nigeria. Reliability analysis test was carried out to determine the internal consistency of the items of the questionnaire. The Cronbach Alpha value was reported at 0.856, which indicted a good internal consistency based on a bench mark of 0.7 and above. Validity of the research instrument was carried out using face and content validity. Data was analysed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Hierarchical multiple regression was used as statistical tool for the analysis. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed through thematic analysis.

Based on the hypotheses testing and thematic analysis carried out in Chapter Four, the results of the findings showed that entrepreneurship programme in the selected senior secondary schools stimulate students‘ and critical thinking abilities to develop creative business ideas but practical activities still tend towards the acquisition of vocational skills. There were also evidences to show that teaching methods adopted in entrepreneurship teaching adopted in the selected senior secondary schools are able to stimulate students’ interest for business start-ups even before graduation. However, funding was identified as a challenge to students‘ business start-up initiatives. In the same vein, entrepreneurship pedagogy adopted in these senior secondary schools channel the focus of students towards identification of business opportunities. Nevertheless, the theoretical sessions are averse to students’ interest and focus. The results also show that a good number of teachers actually have practical knowledge about entrepreneurship, although teachers still lack adequate training on the effective delivery of entrepreneurship courses. There are indications of few senior secondary school policy initiatives salient to innovative entrepreneurial activities of students but most of these initiatives are not introduced early to students.


This study has shown that the contents of the curriculum for entrepreneurship programmes in the selected Nigerian universities, enhances the development of novel and creative business ideas by stimulating critical thinking in students. However, there is still a challenge on what should be defined as practical activities in entrepreneurship education, as most practical activities tend towards the acquisition of vocational skills, rather than development of entrepreneurial skills and aptitudes.

There is also clear evidence to validate that experiential pedagogical approach adopted in the selected universities, motivate identification of business opportunities by experientially creating a shared vision of the process of entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, there are indications that the class sessions are monotonous, and may not stimulate students‘ interest and focus towards the theoretical knowledge of the curriculum.

This study provides valid evidence to show that adoption of effective teaching methods in entrepreneurship facilitates business start-ups, by stimulating students‘interest through action oriented teaching practices. However, there are indications that inadequate funding may impede business start-up potentials of senior secondary school students in Nigeria.

This study concludes that the experience and skill of entrepreneurship teachers in the selected Nigerian senior secondary schools motivate students to write business plans. Nevertheless, some of the teachers‘ lack training on modern approaches for the effective delivery of entrepreneurship courses.

Another inference of this study is that support systems in Nigerian senior secondary schools relevant to entrepreneurial development such as entrepreneurship mentoring, seed funding, business incubation, among others, create a suitable environment for innovations. However, these initiatives are not introduced early enough to students, which may impede their abilities to develop business initiatives.


Entrepreneurship curriculum in Nigerian senior secondary schools should contain an extensive coverage on critical thinking and brain storming sessions that motivate business idea generation. While the benefits of vocational education can be enhanced by an effective entrepreneurship education, nevertheless vocational skill training alone as practical activities cannot motivate development of viable business ideas. Therefore idea generation presentation sessions should be graded components of an entrepreneurship programme in Nigerian universities. This is important considering that every business begins with an idea. Business idea generation activities should be tailored towards students‘ course of study and interest in order to motivate active participation. There is also a need to include aspects in the curriculum relevant to talent development particularly because development of innate abilities may influence the type of business ideas generated.

There is a need for a paradigm shift in the pedagogical approaches adopted in Nigerian senior secondary schools from being largely theoretical to experiential and practical approaches. As identified in literature Problem Based teaching (PBL), teaching By Doing (LBD), or Do it Yourself (DIY) approaches are highly recommended for both theoretical, and practical sessions of an entrepreneurship program. These approaches can influence students‘ understanding of the process of entrepreneurship and also motivate identification of business opportunities because experiential teaching models engage real life context and practical activities. This is important because a business idea can translate into a business enterprise, only if a target market (opportunity) is identified and exploited.

Effective Teaching methods such as invitation of guest speakers, individual and group project, and particularly business simulations activities should be adopted by Nigerian senior secondary schools to stimulate students‘ interest and business start-ups. Student business startups should be a prerequisite activity of an entrepreneurship programme because it increases the likelihood of students engaging in entrepreneurial activities at graduation. Nigerian senior secondary schools should also collaborate and partner with financial institutions and Non- governmental organisations to provide business start-up funding for student entrepreneurs. This is because funding is a major challenge for many student entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurship teachers should ensure to utilise their experience and skill to motivate students‘ commitment to entrepreneurial related teaching with particular emphasis on business plan writing. Business plan writing should be a prerequisite for graduation along side with undergraduate projects and dissertations. This is hinged upon the fact that angel investors, partnering financial institutions and other stakeholder support systems mostly favour business plan competitions as basis for supporting business start-ups. More emphasis should be laid on training and re-training of entrepreneurship teachers on the peculiarity and modalities involved in delivery of entrepreneurship modules and courses. The experience possessed by entrepreneurship teachers notwithstanding, effective teaching particularly as regards entrepreneurship course delivery may pose a challenge as a consequence of lack of training. Therefore, senior secondary school authorities can partner with training organisations to provide training the trainer‘ programmes or certifications on entrepreneurship courses such as business plan writing.

Senior secondary school support systems in Nigerian senior secondary schools should be characterised by initiatives such as technology patenting and commercialization, seed funding, business mentoring and business incubators to motivate knowledge sharing among students and innovations. It is also recommended that engagement of students with entrepreneurial development initiatives provided by institutions should involve students across all levels. Recent findings in entrepreneurship research have shown that early exposure to practical oriented entrepreneurship activities can increase the likelihood of expression of entrepreneurial behavior by undergraduate students. Student entrepreneurship refers to the expression of entrepreneurial behaviours such as business start-ups while in school. With the likes of enterprises such as Facebook, Google and Jobberman that began as school projects, it is highly recommended that student entrepreneurship should be an embedded institutional policy that cuts across all levels.

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