Teacher’s Perception Of Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum And It’s Implications On Implementation At Senior Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Curriculum Studies

Teacher’s Perception Of Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum And It’s Implications On Implementation At Senior Secondary Schools


Abstract


Entrepreneurship education is considered as a potent tool for influencing students‘ learning orientation and expression of entrepreneurial implementation intentions. This study examined the perception of teachers on entrepreneurship education and learning orientation on entrepreneurial implementation intentions of students in four senior secondary schools in kano Nigeria to offer a degree in entrepreneurship. Sequential explanatory mixed method was employed using survey and semi-structured interviews as data collection methods. A total of 600 copies of questionnaire were administered. Semi structured interviews were also conducted on twenty (20) entrepreneurship teachers in the selected universities. Descriptive and inferential research methods: mean and hierarchical multiple regression were used for analysis of the returned and valid copies of questionnaire completed by the respondents. Thematic analysis was also used to analyse the semi structured interviews. The results from the test of hypotheses showed that; entrepreneurship curriculum contents significantly impact on students‘ critical thinking and generation of business ideas (R2=.063,F(2,563)=37.587,p˂.05;R2= .0143, F (1, 562) = 52.706, p ˂ 0.05); entrepreneurship pedagogy significantly affect students‘ shared vision and identification of business opportunities (R2= .177, F (2, 563) = 121.108, p ˂ .05 ; R2= .220, F (1, 562) = 30.696, p ˂ .05). ; teaching methods in entrepreneurship significantly stimulate students‘ interest and business startups (R2= .188, F (2,563) = 131.580, p˂0.05:R2=.385, F(1,562)=181.753, p˂0.05); educator‘s
competence significantly impact on students‘ commitment to learning and business plan writing (R2= .033, F (2, 563) = 18.962, p ˂ .05 ; R2= .122, F (1, 562) = 56.959, p ˂ .05); and senior secondary school support systems significantly enhance knowledge sharing and innovations among students (R2=.052,F(2,563)=30.966, p˂0.05; R2=.097, F(1,562)=27.668, p˂0.05). Results from the thematic analysis validated the findings from the test of hypotheses. However, the findings of the thematic analysis also revealed that practical activities are mainly based on vocational skill acquisition and senior secondary school support systems do not involve students across all levels. Based on the results from the quantitative and qualitative approach, it was recommended that apart from vocational skill activities, the curriculum should contain an extensive coverage of critical thinking and idea generation activities as graded components of the programme. It was also recommended that engagement of students with entrepreneurial development initiatives provided by institutions should involve students across all levels. Therefore to increase the likelihood of engagement in entrepreneurial activities after graduation the implications for the expression of entrepreneurial implementation intentions are that students should generate viable business ideas, identifying market gaps, engage in business startups, write viable business plans and engage in product innovations. These actions should be considered as the major teaching and learning outcomes of an entrepreneurship programme.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The study examined the perception of teachers on the senior secondary Entrepreneurship Education Curriculum. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The research design adopted for the study is a descriptive survey. The population of the study consisted of all the public senior secondary schools in Kano Metropolis and the teachers within them. A purposive sampling technique was employed to select 343 teachers from 12 schools. The instrument for data collection was a modified 4-Point Likert Scale questionnaire developed by the researchers and titled ”Teachers Perception of Entrepreneurship Curriculum Questionnaire (TPEECQ)”. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviation). The results showed that teachers have a positive perception of entrepreneurship education as a technique for secondary school graduate self-employment. The findings also reveal that teachers perceive the entrepreneurship education curriculum as appropriate in terms of its goals and content. The study concludes with recommendations such as: the senior secondary entrepreneurship education curriculum should be redesigned to reflect more entrepreneurial skills and fully implemented at senior secondary schools in Kano Metropolis. Government and private investors should give adequate attention to entrepreneurial development in secondary schools by providing adequate funding as well as taking measures to overcome all the prevailing challenges facing effective entrepreneurship teaching.

In the same vein, governments and teachers of developing nations such as Kenya, Tanzania, Columbia, and Trinidad and Tobago re-aligned their educational systems towards the popular national and international support for vocational education as a viable option to tackle the growing concern of graduate unemployment. Thus various models of vocational education programmes were introduced to combat unemployment and tackle other socio-economic challenges (Abrokwa, 1995; Asiyai, 2013). In line with global trends, vocational and technical education policy was implemented in the educational system of Nigeria through the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education (six year primary school, three year junior secondary school, three year senior secondary school and four year higher institution) in 1982 aimed at providing training and impartations of necessary skills geared towards the production of craftsmen, technicians and other skillful youths who will possess enterprise skills and also have understanding of the increasing dynamism of technology (Federal Ministry of Education, 1992). One of the goals of the policy was to train youths to be self- reliant and to separate students with academic competencies from abilities those with technical (technical colleges) with the aim that the technically inclined individuals, will create jobs for themselves after school. However, the major challenges of the vocational and technical education policy include inadequacy of infrastructure, unfavourable conditions of service for teachers, inadequate funding for tertiary institutions, lack of adequate support for Student Industrial Work Experience (SIWES), unstable academic calendar due to strike actions, and inadequate collaboration between tertiary institutions and the organized private sector, hence the policy was ineffective (Asiyai, 2013). In an attempt to redress the challenges regarding acquisition of vocational skills and aptitudes presented by the 6-3-3-4 system of education, the National Policy on Education was again revised in 1998 with the introduction of the Universal Basic Education programme (UBE) which ushered in the 9-3-4 system of education primarily targeted at using education as a tool for national unity as well as enhancing the development of knowledge and skill acquisition for adaptation into the world of work and the larger society. Although, the dictates of the policy implied that basic education should be made compulsory, the implementation was not enforced thus the aim of the policy was defeated (Federal Ministry of Education, 2006).

Senior secondary schools education has been acknowledged as a primary mechanism for the creation of a knowledge economy and the development of human capital all over the world, thus considering the pivotal role of senior secondary schools education to human development. Another revision was carried out on the National Policy on Education in 2004 to accommodate global trends in education as a result of technological development (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Consequently, the policy proposed that admission into Nigerian senior secondary schools should be based on a 60-40 per cent ratio for science and humanities programmes respectively. This informed the establishment of Institutes of Technology in an attempt to usher in Nigeria into technological and industrial development. However, the policy failed in the achievement of its goals probably because senior secondary schools were unable to meet the stipulated admission for programmes ratio owing to the fact that programmes in social sciences continue to attract more candidates based on societal demands (Imam, 2012). The emergence of entrepreneurs is considered favourably as key policy strategy in many developed nations, and entrepreneurship is given the center stage particularly on issues of graduate unemployment and economic development. This owes to the fact that it contributes to nation‘s wealth by creating employment opportunities, opening new markets, driving industrialisation, as well as increase in productivity leading to equitable distribution of income and higher standard of living for the populace (Jahanshahi, Nawaser, Khaksar, & Kamalian, 2011). In light of the above, several entrepreneurship development programmes such as National Directorate of Employment (NDE), National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP) and more recently Youth With Innovation (YOUWIN) and many others have been embarked upon in Nigeria over the years. Many of these initiatives failed due to poor implementation and the inability to appreciably reduce the rising rate of unemployment particularly youth and graduate unemployment. Specifically, National Directorate of Employment (NDE) was created in 1986 saddled with the responsibility of designing and implementing programmes to tackle mass unemployment in Nigeria through vocational skill training, employment counseling, job linkages, as well as entrepreneurial training and enterprise creation. Nevertheless, the major demerit of the NDE was the inability of the programme to provide post training resources for job creation as a consequence of lack of commitment by government at various levels leading to low survival rates of businesses established (Mno,2007).

The emergence of phenomenal entrepreneurs such as Bill Gates in the U.S and Alico Dangote in Africa has driven stakeholders, policy makers and researchers globally to search for ways to model the younger generation after these rare breeds of entrepreneurs in order to effectively tackle graduate unemployment and achieve economic development. The outcome is a focus on entrepreneurship education which is targeted at stimulating creative thinking and enhancing individuals to identify opportunities that can lead to business start-ups (Honig, 2004). The introduction of entrepreneurship education by the Government of Nigeria through the National senior secondary schools Commission (NUC) in 2006 was one of the intervention strategies and policies in line with global trends to refocus senior secondary schools education towards entrepreneurship development as well as to combat the persistent rise in graduate unemployment. At present, entrepreneurship education in Nigerian senior secondary schools are offered as a compulsory general course while some senior secondary schools offer Bachelor degree in entrepreneurship. However, for any entrepreneurship education programme to achieve its goals, the structure and the key components of such programme must favourably motivate students‘ teaching perception and considerations of entrepreneurship as a future career. The consideration of teaching perception in the context of entrepreneurship education in Nigerian senior secondary schools has practical implications considering that an individual‘s teaching perception is not completely static particularly because it can be influenced based on certain situational contexts (Dragoni, Tesluk, Russell, & Oh 2009). Specifically the design and process of an entrepreneurship programme offered in Nigerian senior secondary school scan facilitate students to be more teaching oriented particularly if the design and process of such programmes are active experimentation oriented as well as encourage students to question their current knowledge (Dragoni, 2005). Though an individual‘s teaching perception exhibits the attributes of a personal trait, it is still considered as one that can be influenced. Hence, a challenging entrepreneurship programme can enhance students teaching orientation.
Entrepreneurship education in senior secondary schools has attracted the attention of researchers all over the world and one main research focus is students‘ intentions for an entrepreneurial career. This is consequent upon the fact that intentions provide ample evidence of the outcome of an entrepreneurship training programme and because intentions are good predictors of future behaviour (Dirk, Benson, & Bruce, 2013). This implies that intentions could provide a reliable lead to future entrepreneurial behaviour and expression of actions. However, entrepreneurial implementation intentions as theorised in this study suggest that intentions can be expressed through certain observable actions and behavioural responses to show commitment towards the achievement of entrepreneurial goals and aspirations. Nevertheless, perceptions play a critical role in entrepreneurship education. If a student or an teachers has a positive perception towards entrepreneurship education, it is likely that such an individual will actively engage in the activities involved in the programme. Individuals with positive perception of an entrepreneurship programme will perceive themselves as having what it takes to achieve the goals of the programme as it relates to the teaching and teaching outcomes (Moy, Luk, & Wright, 2003). Therefore the perception of a student or an teachers about various aspects of an entrepreneurship programme will largely determine the goals the individual sets for him/herself and the expected outcome of actions taken. Therefore based on the perceptions of students and entrepreneurship teachers in selected secondary schools, this research explored the extent to which exposure to entrepreneurship education affects students‘ teaching perception and expression of entrepreneurial implementation intentions in Nigerian secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

Entrepreneurship education in senior secondary schools is aimed at inculcating entrepreneurial skills and attitudes in students to motivate entrepreneurial intentions or considerations of entrepreneurship as a career by students(Middleton, 2010). Despite the introduction of entrepreneurship education as a compulsory study in schools the aspirations for white collar jobs and graduate unemployment has persistently been on the increase. However, studies such as Aja-Okorie and Adali (2013) as well as Adebayo and Kolawole (2013) have established that entrepreneurship education has a positive effect on entrepreneurial intentions of senior secondary schools students in Nigeria. Therefore the development of entrepreneurial intentions by Nigerian senior secondary schools students may not be in doubt.

It therefore suggests that senior secondary schools students in Nigeria are not able to translate their intentions into the achievement of entrepreneurial goals and aspirations at graduation. It is important to state that the success of any knowledge or skill development initiative is largely determined by the participant‘s teaching orientation. Hence, considering that students in Nigerian senior secondary schools are hardly able to translate entrepreneurial intentions into the achievement of entrepreneurial goals and pursuit, it implies that the exposure to entrepreneurship education may not favourably motivate students‘ teaching orientation. Furthermore, the expression of actions in pursuit of a goal substantiates intentions and increases the likelihood for the achievement of a desired end (Gollwitzer, 1993). This implies that the rising rates of graduate unemployment in Nigeria may be a pointer to the fact that entrepreneurship programmes in Nigerian senior secondary schools do not motivate students to initiate actions and behavioural responses in service of their entrepreneurial goals and aspirations at graduation. Therefore in proffering solutions to these challenges identified, there is a need to highlight what areas have been covered by existing literature as regards the interplay between the components of an entrepreneurship programme, the dimensions of students‘teaching orientation, and expression of actions in pursuit of entrepreneurial goals (entrepreneurial implementation intentions), in order to identify the lacuna that exist.

Specifically, entrepreneurship education is a purposeful action which should stimulate critical thinking in participants for generating innovative and creative business ideas (Sadeghi, Mohammadi, Nosrati, & Malekian 2013). It is important to state that researchers such as Adebayo and Kolawole (2013), Dirk, Benson, and Bruce (2013) and Papadimitriou (2015) have advocated a revision of entrepreneurship curriculum content in senior secondary schools to bridge the gap between theory and practice with particular emphasis on development of entrepreneurial intentions. However, there is a need to ascertain whether entrepreneurship curriculum contents stimulate students‘ critical thinking and generation of business ideas in Nigerian secondary schools.

In the same vein, the pedagogical approaches adopted in entrepreneurship education should create a shared vision in students to see socio-economic problems as challenges that could be translated into viable and feasible business opportunities (Sahlberg, 2010). Consequently, studies such as Middleton (2010), Aja-Okorie and Adali (2013), and more recently Nasiru, Keat, and Bhatti (2015) on entrepreneurship pedagogical issues in senior secondary schools education have recommended the design of experiential teaching activities to motivate the development of creative problem solving abilities in order to enhance students‘ entrepreneurial intentions. Nevertheless, considering the link between pedagogical approaches and identification of business opportunities, one aspect of keen interest particularly in the Nigerian senior secondary schools context that many studies have ignored is the extent to which the pedagogical approach adopted affect students‘ shared vision and identification of business opportunities.

Furthermore, a major aim of entrepreneurship education is to stimulate an individual‘s interest to perform as an entrepreneur; hence teaching methods in entrepreneurship education should enable tryouts through business startups in an organised environment within senior secondary schools(Ahmad, Baharun, & Rahman, 2004). Studies such as Arasti, Falavarjani, and Imanipour (2012) Rae and Carswell (2001) supported by Shepherd and Douglas (1997), have studied teaching methods in entrepreneurship and their appropriateness for entrepreneurial needs of graduate students. However, there is a paucity of research on teaching methods in entrepreneurship education and the effects on students‘ interest and business startups in the Nigerian senior secondary schools context.

An teachers‘s competence is a decisive factor regarding the development of entrepreneurial skills (Hytti & O’Gorman, 2004). This suggests that the competence of an teachers cannot be overemphasized particularly because practical business skills and experience are required to inculcate entrepreneurial skills in students. Business planning as an entrepreneurial activity that involves the totality of the entrepreneurship process, hence it is still considered as an important aspect of entrepreneurship education and training. Consequently, the study of Fiet (2000) looked at the role of the teachers in entrepreneurship education generally; similarly Shulman and Shulman (2004) stressed the role of practical business experience and training of entrepreneurship teachers in motivating considerations of entrepreneurship as a career by senior secondary schools students. However, considering the role of business planning activities in inculcating entrepreneurship skills in teachers, another implication for this research is to examine the role of an teachers‘s competence on students‘ commitment to teaching and business plan writing.

Senior secondary schools support systems can be a major determinant of student‘s consideration of entrepreneurship as a career. senior secondary schools initiatives and support systems may largely affect the expression of innovativeness (Morris, Kuratko, & Cornwall, 2013). These initiatives motivate knowledge sharing among students culminating in innovations (Morris, Kuratko, & Cornwall, 2013). The study of Reznik (2010) examined the senior secondary schools environment and student entrepreneurial aspirations. Other studies such as Linan, Urbano, and Guerrero (2011) and the study of Shirokova, Bogatyreva, and Galkina (2014) have looked into senior secondary schools environment and formation of student‘s entrepreneurial intentions. Nevertheless, a critical task to explore in the Nigerian context is to examine the role of senior secondary schools support systems in motivating knowledge sharing and innovations among students. Based on the areas of concern identified, the next section highlights the general and specific objectives of this study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To examine the perception of teachers on entrepreneurship education in senior secondary schools in Nigeria..
  2. Examine the extent to which entrepreneurship pedagogy affects students‘ shared-vision and identification of business opportunities.
  3. Evaluate the role of teaching methods in entrepreneurship on students‘ interest and business start-ups.
  4. Determine how an teachers‘s competence impacts on students‘ commitment to teaching and business plan writing.
  5. Assess the role of senior secondary schools policy environment on students‘ knowledge sharing and innovation.

1.4 Research Questions

Based on the research objectives, the following research questions were addressed in the study:

  1. What are the views of teachers on entrepreneurship education in Nigeria schools.
  2. Extent do entrepreneurship curriculum contents impact on students‘ critical thinking and business idea generation?
  3. In what way does entrepreneurship pedagogy affect students‘ shared-vision and identification of business opportunities?
  4. In what way do teaching methods in entrepreneurship stimulate students‘ interest and business start-ups?
  5. To what extent does an teachers‘s competence impact on students‘ commitment to teaching and business plan writing?
  6. To what degree do the senior secondary schools support systems enhance students‘ knowledge sharing and innovation?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the following stakeholders:

Policy Makers

This study is important to policy makers and stakeholders in Nigeria regarding the design of an entrepreneurship curriculum that can enhance the development of viable business ideas by students of Nigerian secondary schools.

Senior Secondary Schools Management

The result of this study will provide a guide for senior secondary schools managements on the formulation and implementation of policies, consistent with engagement in innovative activities and entrepreneurial development of students in Nigerian secondary schools.

Students

The findings of this study will facilitate the development of entrepreneurial skills and aptitudes in Nigerian senior secondary schools students, which in turn will motivate the propensity for job creation and reduction in graduate unemployment.

Researchers

This research will contribute to existing knowledge in entrepreneurship education literature, by developing an intention model that will be useful for researchers in undertaking further research on related areas of study.

Practitioners

The findings of this study will provide evidence to validate the role of entrepreneurship training and education in motivating business startup.


1.6 Scope of the Study

Entrepreneurship education programmes in Nigerian senior secondary schools was the focus of this study. Specifically, the study examined the perception of teachers on entrepreneurship education in secondary schools. However, emphasis was laid on the first secondary schools in kano Metropolis. The entrepreneurship programmes in these senior secondary schools were considered relevant to the context of this study because there are indications that best practices in entrepreneurship education are obtainable in these schools, and also because the main aim of the entrepreneurship programmes in these schools is to motivate students to initiate entrepreneurial actions during the course of the programmes. Attention was given the perceptions of students in the selected schools. This provided a basis to understand how students interpret the teaching and teaching processes in entrepreneurship education and how these affects their behavioural responses and actions. Limitations of the Study

The quantitative aspect of this research adopted survey method of data collection hence respondents may not be encouraged to provide accurate answers to the questions posed.

Semi structured interview was used to collect qualitative data, this may affect the adequacy of the data collection process.

This study was based on perceptions of entrepreneurship students and teachers as this may limit the quality of information gathered.
Five components each of entrepreneurship education, teaching perception and entrepreneurial implementation intentions were identified in this thesis. This may limit the adequacy of the components of the constructs.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Entrepreneurship:

Entrepreneurship is defined as the process that involves idea generation, opportunity identification and business planning, which results in business creation or product innovation.

Entrepreneur:

An entrepreneur is defined as an individual, who can successfully and efficiently organise resources in search of an opportunity to create value.

Entrepreneurship Education:

Entrepreneurship education is defined as any program or process of education targeted at motivating entrepreneurial actions and behaviour.

Entrepreneurship Curriculum Content:

Entrepreneurship curriculum content is defined as information and experiences contained in the curriculum of an entrepreneurship program.

Entrepreneurship Pedagogy:

Defined as the teaching and teaching models adopted in an entrepreneurship program.

Teaching Methods in Entrepreneurship:

Teaching methods in entrepreneurship is defined as specific actions and techniques employed in teaching in entrepreneurship classrooms.

Entrepreneurship teachers Competence:

Entrepreneurship teachers competence is defined as an integrated action based on skill and experience that enable individuals to perform adequately in inculcating entrepreneurial related knowledge and competencies in teachers.

Senior Secondary Schools Support Systems:

senior secondary schools support systems are defined as the institutional climate, shared values and engagement in extra-curricular activities relating to entrepreneurship development.

Perception:

Perception refers to the process of being aware of one‘s environment through the senses.

Teaching Orientation:

Teaching perception is defined as the inclination towards a continuous search for new knowledge.

Commitment to Teaching:

Commitment to teaching is defined as the degree to which an individual values and promotes teaching which is salient to the development of the individual.

Shared Vision:

Shared vision is defined as a collective focus of teaching.

Critical Thinking:

Critical thinking is defined as the readiness of an individual to critically assess evaluate teaching disposition and accept new ideas.

Individual Knowledge Sharing:

Individual knowledge sharing is defined as individual beliefs or behavioural routines salient to the dissemination of knowledge and information collated from diverse sources that serves as reference for future action.

Interest:

Alludes to an individual’s generally continuing psychological (inclination) to re- engage in specific classes, occasions, or thoughts after some time and it is particular about content.

Entrepreneurial Intention:

Entrepreneurial intention is defined as an individual‘s drive to make a mind ful plan to execute the behaviour of setting up a business.

Entrepreneurial Implementation Intention:

Entrepreneurial implementation intention is defined as a volitional phase consisting of efforts to initiate an intended entrepreneurial behavior.

Business Idea Generation:

Business idea generation is defined as the process of creating, developing and communicating business ideas which may be abstract, concrete or visual.

Business Opportunity Identification:

Business opportunity identification is defined as the outcome of the process of idea generation that may lead to the achievement of one or more economic ends.

Business Planning:

Business planning is defined as the creative development and documentation of a conceptual business model into a concrete form of viable venture.

Innovation:

Innovation is defined as new products and processes as well as significant changes of products and processes.

Functional Resource Perspective of Entrepreneurship:

The functional resource viewpoint of entrepreneurship centers on the role of the entrepreneur in the process of opportunity exploitation and resource combination and their effects on the economic system.

Psychological Perspective of Entrepreneurship:

This standpoint is embedded in the psychological philosophy that studies the aspects and attributes of entrepreneurship from a psychological approach focusing on the personality traits and dispositions of an entrepreneur.

Behavioural Perspective of Entrepreneurship:

The focus of this perspective is on what the entrepreneur does that is considered important as against a consideration of the traits they possess.


1.8 organisation of Work

The study is divided into five (5) chapters and organized as follows:

  • Chapter one from the introduction part, this is where the main theme of the research is given. It comprises of the statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions and hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the study and organization of the study.
  • Chapter two is the literature review of the role of capital market on the economic development of Nigeria.
  • Chapter three forms the research methodology which includes sources of data, method of data analysis and model specification.
  • Chapter four is the data analysis
  • While chapter five includes the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

Chapter Five


Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Research Work

Chapter one contains the background to the study which laid a foundation for an examination of the effects of entrepreneurship education and teaching perception on entrepreneurial intentions of Nigerian senior secondary school students. Discussion on the statement of research problem was hinged on the need to reexamine the effects of the components of entrepreneurship programme and students‘ teaching orientation, on the expression of entrepreneurial implementation intentions in Nigerian universities. The specific objectives of the study were stated, and research questions and hypotheses were stated correspondingly. This was followed by a section highlighting the significance of this study to various groups and stakeholders. The chapter also showed that the focus of the study was on the perceptions of students‘ and teachers, on entrepreneurship education programmes in Nigerian universities. Emphasis was laid on the four pioneer senior secondary schools to offer a degree programme in entrepreneurship, based on the fact that best practices in entrepreneurship education are obtainable in these schools

Chapter Two presented a conceptual framework, which involved discussions on relevant concepts and conceptual linkages such as nature of entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship and the Nigerian Economy, Nigerian government policy support for entrepreneurship, education and entrepreneurship development, senior secondary school education and entrepreneurship development, the concept of entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurship education programmes, development of Academic entrepreneurship in Nigeria, the concept of entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurship as an intentional behavior, entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurial actions, concept of teaching orientation, mediating role of teaching orientation, and other relevant conceptual discussions. A discussion was also carried out on theories that underpinned the study which are; human capital entrepreneurship theory, experiential teaching theory and implementation intention theory. Empirical studies such as the following were discussed in alignment with the specific objectives of this study: Bilic, Prka, and Vidovic (2011) on the influence of education and curriculum on entrepreneurship orientation, idea generation and entrepreneurial intention. Detienne and Chandler (2004), on opportunity identification and its role in the entrepreneurial classroom, Bulte and Pilot (2013) on fostering the competence of science students in identifying business opportunities, Arasti, Falavarjani, and Imanipour (2012) on Teaching methods in entrepreneurship for graduate students and Amalia (2012) on the role of the senior secondary schoolsupport environment and development of student entrepreneurship. This chapter was concluded with the presentation of the gaps identified in review of literature.

Chapter Three described the methodology for the research. The study adopted a descriptive research design to establish trends related to the objectives of the study, and sequential explanatory mixed methods (Quantitative validated by Qualitative methods) was employed using survey questionnaire and semi –structured interview for data collection. The population of this study included all students in the first four (4) senior secondary schoolsin Nigeria to offer a degree in entrepreneurship which was fifty thousand nine-hundred (50,900) students. The sample size was determined based on the formula recommended by Godden (2004), and a sample size of six hundred (600) students was used to represent the study population as computed. The sampling frame comprised the list of all undergraduate students in the four selected universities. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted, which involved stratified sampling and simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data and for the qualitative data twenty (20) semi-structured interviews (five in each school) was carried out and data was collected with the aid of a Dictaphone and field notes. A pilot study was conducted to establish the reliability of the study. Forty (40) copies of the questionnaire were distributed to Covenant senior secondary school students, Ota Ogun State Nigeria. Reliability analysis test was carried out to determine the internal consistency of the items of the questionnaire. The Cronbach Alpha value was reported at 0.856, which indicted a good internal consistency based on a bench mark of 0.7 and above. Validity of the research instrument was carried out using face and content validity. Data was analysed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Hierarchical multiple regression was used as statistical tool for the analysis. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed and analysed through thematic analysis.

Based on the hypotheses testing and thematic analysis carried out in Chapter Four, the results of the findings showed that entrepreneurship programme in the selected senior secondary schools stimulate students‘ and critical thinking abilities to develop creative business ideas but practical activities still tend towards the acquisition of vocational skills. There were also evidences to show that teaching methods adopted in entrepreneurship teaching adopted in the selected senior secondary schools are able to stimulate students’ interest for business start-ups even before graduation. However, funding was identified as a challenge to students‘ business start-up initiatives. In the same vein, entrepreneurship pedagogy adopted in these senior secondary schools channel the focus of students towards identification of business opportunities. Nevertheless, the theoretical sessions are averse to students’ interest and focus. The results also show that a good number of teachers actually have practical knowledge about entrepreneurship, although teachers still lack adequate training on the effective delivery of entrepreneurship courses. There are indications of few senior secondary school policy initiatives salient to innovative entrepreneurial activities of students but most of these initiatives are not introduced early to students.


5.2 Conclusion

This study has shown that the contents of the curriculum for entrepreneurship programmes in the selected Nigerian universities, enhances the development of novel and creative business ideas by stimulating critical thinking in students. However, there is still a challenge on what should be defined as practical activities in entrepreneurship education, as most practical activities tend towards the acquisition of vocational skills, rather than development of entrepreneurial skills and aptitudes.

There is also clear evidence to validate that experiential pedagogical approach adopted in the selected universities, motivate identification of business opportunities by experientially creating a shared vision of the process of entrepreneurship. Nevertheless, there are indications that the class sessions are monotonous, and may not stimulate students‘ interest and focus towards the theoretical knowledge of the curriculum.

This study provides valid evidence to show that adoption of effective teaching methods in entrepreneurship facilitates business start-ups, by stimulating students‘interest through action oriented teaching practices. However, there are indications that inadequate funding may impede business start-up potentials of senior secondary school students in Nigeria.

This study concludes that the experience and skill of entrepreneurship teachers in the selected Nigerian senior secondary schools motivate students to write business plans. Nevertheless, some of the teachers‘ lack training on modern approaches for the effective delivery of entrepreneurship courses.

Another inference of this study is that support systems in Nigerian senior secondary schools relevant to entrepreneurial development such as entrepreneurship mentoring, seed funding, business incubation, among others, create a suitable environment for innovations. However, these initiatives are not introduced early enough to students, which may impede their abilities to develop business initiatives.


5.3 Recommendations

Entrepreneurship curriculum in Nigerian senior secondary schools should contain an extensive coverage on critical thinking and brain storming sessions that motivate business idea generation. While the benefits of vocational education can be enhanced by an effective entrepreneurship education, nevertheless vocational skill training alone as practical activities cannot motivate development of viable business ideas. Therefore idea generation presentation sessions should be graded components of an entrepreneurship programme in Nigerian universities. This is important considering that every business begins with an idea. Business idea generation activities should be tailored towards students‘ course of study and interest in order to motivate active participation. There is also a need to include aspects in the curriculum relevant to talent development particularly because development of innate abilities may influence the type of business ideas generated.

There is a need for a paradigm shift in the pedagogical approaches adopted in Nigerian senior secondary schools from being largely theoretical to experiential and practical approaches. As identified in literature Problem Based teaching (PBL), teaching By Doing (LBD), or Do it Yourself (DIY) approaches are highly recommended for both theoretical, and practical sessions of an entrepreneurship program. These approaches can influence students‘ understanding of the process of entrepreneurship and also motivate identification of business opportunities because experiential teaching models engage real life context and practical activities. This is important because a business idea can translate into a business enterprise, only if a target market (opportunity) is identified and exploited.

Effective Teaching methods such as invitation of guest speakers, individual and group project, and particularly business simulations activities should be adopted by Nigerian senior secondary schools to stimulate students‘ interest and business start-ups. Student business startups should be a prerequisite activity of an entrepreneurship programme because it increases the likelihood of students engaging in entrepreneurial activities at graduation. Nigerian senior secondary schools should also collaborate and partner with financial institutions and Non- governmental organisations to provide business start-up funding for student entrepreneurs. This is because funding is a major challenge for many student entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurship teachers should ensure to utilise their experience and skill to motivate students‘ commitment to entrepreneurial related teaching with particular emphasis on business plan writing. Business plan writing should be a prerequisite for graduation along side with undergraduate projects and dissertations. This is hinged upon the fact that angel investors, partnering financial institutions and other stakeholder support systems mostly favour business plan competitions as basis for supporting business start-ups. More emphasis should be laid on training and re-training of entrepreneurship teachers on the peculiarity and modalities involved in delivery of entrepreneurship modules and courses. The experience possessed by entrepreneurship teachers notwithstanding, effective teaching particularly as regards entrepreneurship course delivery may pose a challenge as a consequence of lack of training. Therefore, senior secondary school authorities can partner with training organisations to provide training the trainer‘ programmes or certifications on entrepreneurship courses such as business plan writing.

Senior secondary school support systems in Nigerian senior secondary schools should be characterised by initiatives such as technology patenting and commercialization, seed funding, business mentoring and business incubators to motivate knowledge sharing among students and innovations. It is also recommended that engagement of students with entrepreneurial development initiatives provided by institutions should involve students across all levels. Recent findings in entrepreneurship research have shown that early exposure to practical oriented entrepreneurship activities can increase the likelihood of expression of entrepreneurial behavior by undergraduate students. Student entrepreneurship refers to the expression of entrepreneurial behaviours such as business start-ups while in school. With the likes of enterprises such as Facebook, Google and Jobberman that began as school projects, it is highly recommended that student entrepreneurship should be an embedded institutional policy that cuts across all levels.


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