Bacteriological Examination Of Sachet And Bottled Water

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Bacteriological Examination Of Sachet And Bottled Water


Abstract


The bacteriological examination of bottled and sachet water in Enugu metropolis, a case study of Aqua Rapha in 9th mile, Enugu was carried out to determine the bacterial load in the water samples and organisms that contaminates the water. The water samples were spring water, well water and surface tank reservoir of rain water from Enugu metropolis of Aqua Rapha in a sterile container. Using pour plate plating techniques 0.1ml of water sample was pipette into Petri-dishes and the already prepared agar (nutrient agar and MacConkey) was poured into Petri-dishes, swirled for and homogenous mixture, allowed to solidify and incubated at 370C for 24hours.

Presumption coliform counts was carried out by using double strength lactose and single strength lactose broth, the test in tubes incubated for 370C for 24hours. The result showed that high counts microorganisms were present in the well water, spring water has a lesser counts and reservoir has a low count. The bacterial isolated are Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella. These showed that well and spring water contained bacteria contaminant and there should be need for adequate treatment of water to avoid water borne diseases e.g. Cholera, Salmonella and streptococcus.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Water is one of the most common indispensable resources for the continual existence of all living thing including man. Good quality of water is odorless, tasteless, and free from fecal pollution. Water covers about 71% of the entire areas of the earth’s surface and is found in oceans, rivers, lakes, ponds, streams and springs (Ogunji et al., 2010).

Industries and farms Harigan and Macance, 2009, reported that water sourced from rivers, streams and lakes are subjected to a lot of contaminated water ranges from dissolved salts such as carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphate of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The most deadly contamination of water is faecal contaminated water bodies gotten from contaminated feaces of human during activities such as defecation, these kind of defecate wash swim in water bodies. Moreover, the bursting of soaking pit into water bodies are also common both in rural and urban areas (Cifluent et al., 2012).

The inadequacy of pipe borne water in most cities in Nigeria is almost endemic. These inadequate in quality and quantity have spontaneously increased the consumption of “sachet water” and “Bottle water”. This water is packed in polythene (nylon) sachet of about 60cl for sachet water while for bottle water; the water is packaged in light plastic bottle of a varying size which compresses on applying of pressure against the bottle. In the above form they are sold to the public for consumption (APHA, 2009).

A review of studies carried by the World Bank gives the evidence that incidence of water borne disease are related to the quality and quantity of water and sanitation available to users. Iken et al., 2008 highlights that in a contaminated water organisms especially of the Enterobacteri accence group e.g Escherichia coli, Enterbacter, Georgenes, Klebsiella, salmonella typhi Yersinia enterolitica are highly contaminated in the water.

In order to prevent the outbreak of the water there are needs to preserves and treat water supplied to towns and cities (Cabell, 2007). The methods of treatments of water are thus; boiling of water at 1000C. This prevents the growth of pathogenic organism, boiling of water does not get rid of spore forming organism. Water treatment such as chlorination, sedimentation of water and other process that ensures the neutralization of chemical contained in water killing of pathogen organisms.


1.2 Statement of Problem

In urban communities’ drinking water are sourced from wells, spring, rainfall etc. This water before taken is not given any form of treatment. These have caused the high rate of water borne disease. Ikeh et al., 2008 explains that the outbreak of water borne disease in urban communities is alarming and these has resulted to death of the infected individuals as a result of poor response by medical practitioners to these problem. He further states that an outbreak of water borne disease is gradually becoming an epidemic if adequate steps are not taken to combat it. Apart from urban communities people also in rural areas do not have good source of water borne disease. These statements thereby prompt the need for an analysis to be conducted of water supplied to urban areas.


1.3 Aim of the Study

  1. To identify the bacterial organism in sachet and bottled water.
  2. To determine the bacterial load of microorganism in the sourced water.
  3. To ascertain the level of the borne disease in these area.

1.4 Hypothesis

Ho: Sachet and bottled water cannot be contaminated by bacteria.

Ho: Sachet and bottled water can be contaminated by bacteria.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The result of the bacteriological examination of sachet and bottled water in Enugu Metropolis (9th mile) would determine the prevalence of water borne disease in these area and I would ensure that prevention and techniques such as boiling water, adequate treatment of water borne disease patient, thereby ensuring the control for its emergences.


1.6 Limitation of the Study

Lack of finance in purchase of reagent and material that were non-existence in the laboratory and this affect the source of information thereby limiting the scope of the project work.

This project work is limited only to identify and determines the bacterial load and organisms responsible for contamination of sachet and bottled water in 9th mile, Enugu.


Chapter Five


Summary and Conclusion

5.1 Summary of Findings

The threat of water borne diseases in contaminated water and food continue to raise increasing concerns over the years. Water, even when obtained from well treated sachet and bottle water, may still present contaminants. From the samples, the various companies in 9th mile analyzed with exception of company2 and 3 were contaminated with bacteria. The total bacteriological count (table 1) after incubation in MacConkey agar at 37°C for 24 hours from company 1 was 32×104, company 4 was 0.03×104 and company 5 was 39×104. Companies 2 and 3 were free from microorganisms. The coliform count (MPN) was analyzed ranged from 0-35.The various bacteria isolates obtained from the samples are as follows; Alcaligenesspp., Klebsiella spp., and Salmonella spp., with Alcaligenesspp. obtained twice from company1.


5.2 Conclusion

Underground water is believed to be the purest form of water because of the purification properties of the soil, however, source of contamination could be due to improper design and construction of boreholes, shallowness, and proximity to toilet, refuse dump sites, and various human activities which can serve as source of contamination. Therefore, proper borehole location is essential, good sanitation of environment, proper cleaning and treatment of water sachet and bottle water and control of human activities that affect quality of drinking water. Water quality should be controlled in order to minimize acute problem of water related diseases. Domestic treatment of borehole water is also an essential means of improving water quality and regular cleaning of water reservoirs with appropriate cleaning reagents. Constant monitoring of water quality stands as a good mean of detecting earlier the deviation of drinking water from the standard.


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