Climate Change

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT


Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e. decades to millions of years). Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the variation of weather around longer-term average condition (i.e. more or fewer extreme weather events).

Climate change is caused by factors such as biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions. Certain human activities have been identified as primary causes of ongoing climate change, often refers to as global warming. Scientists actively work to understand past and future climate by using observations and theoretical models.

A climate record-extending deep into the earth’s past-has been assembled, and continues to be built up, based on geological evidence from borehole temperature profiles, cores removed from deep accumulation of ice, floral and faunal records, glacial and per glacial processes, stable-isotope and other analyses of sediment layers and records of past sea levels.

More recent data are provided by the instrumental record. General circulation models, based on the physical sciences are often used in theoretical approaches to match past climate, data, make future projections and link causes and effects in climate change.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Terminology

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Causes
  • 2.1 Internal forcing mechanisms
  • 2.1.1 Ocean atmosphere variability
  • 2.1.2 Life
  • 2.2 External forcing mechanisms
  • 2.2.1 Orbital variations
  • 2.2.2 Solar output
  • 2.2.3 Volcanism
  • 2.2.4 Plate tectonics
  • 2.2.5 Haman influences

Chapter There

  • 3.0 Physical evidence
  • 3.1 Temperature measurements and proxies
  • 3.2 Histories and archaeological evidence
  • 3.3 Glaciers
  • 3.4 Arctic sea ice loss
  • 3.5 Vegetation
  • 3.5.1 Forest genetic resources
  • 3.6 Pollen analysis
  • 3.7 Cloud cover and precipitation
  • 3.8 Dendroclimatology
  • 3.9 Ice cores
  • 3.10 Animals
  • 3.11 Sea level change
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


The most general definition of climate change in the statistical properties (principally is mean and spread) of the climate system when considered over long period of time, regardless of cause. Accordingly fluctuations over periods shorter than a few decades, such as El Nino, do not represent climate change.

The term “climate change” is often used to refer specially to anthropogenic climate change (also known as global warming). Anthropogenic climate change is caused by human activity as opposed to changes in climate that may have resulted as party earth’s natural processes.

In this sense, especially in the context of environmental policy, the term climate change has become synonymous with anthropogenic global warning. Within scientific journals, global warming refers to surface temperature increase while climate change includes global warming and everything else that increasing greenhouse gas level affected.

A related term is “climate change”. In 1966, the world meteorological organization (WMO) proposed the term “climate change” to encompass all forms of climatic variability on time-scales longer than 10 years, regardless of cause. Change was a given and climate was used as an adjective to describe this kind of change (as opposed to political or economic change).

When it was realized that human activities had a potential to drastically alter the climate, the term climate change replaced climate change as the dominant term to reflect an anthropogenic cause. Climate change was incorporated in the title of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) and the UN framework. Convention on climate change (UNFCCC). Climate change, used as a noun, became an issue rather than the technical description of changing weather.


In conclusion, “climate change” means a change in climate that persists over a sustained period of time. The World Meteorological Organization defines this time period as 30 years. Examples of climate change include increases in global surface temperature (global warming), changes in rainfall patterns, and changes in the frequency of extreme weather events. Changes in climate may be due to natural causes, e.g., changes in the sun’s output, or due to human activities, e.g., changing the composition of the atmosphere. Any human-induced changes in climate will occur against a background of natural climatic variations and of variations in human activity such as population growth on shores or in arid areas which increase or decrease climate vulnerability.
Also, the term “anthropogenic forcing” refers to the influence exerted on a habitat or chemical environment by humans, as opposed to a natural process.


Meeting the diverse information needs of decision makers as they seek to understand and address climate change is a formidable challenge. This recommendation highlight the argument for a new kind of climate change science enterprise, one that builds on the strengths of existing activities and

  1. Focuses not only on improving understanding, but helps to inform solutions for problems at local, regional, national, and global levels;
  2. Integrates diverse kinds of knowledge and explicitly engages the social, ecological, physical, health, and engineering sciences;
  3. Emphasizes coupled human-environment systems rather than individual human or environmental systems in isolation;
  4. Evaluates the implications of particular choices across sectors and scales so as to maximize co-benefits, avoid unintended consequences, and understand net effects across different areas of decision making;
  5. Develops and employs decision-support resources and tools that make scientific knowledge useful and accessible to decision makers;
  6. Focuses, where appropriate, on place-based analyses to support decision making in specific locations or regions, because the dynamics of both human and environmental systems play out in different ways in different places and decisions must be context-specific; and
  7. Supports adaptive decision making and risk management in the face of inevitable uncertainty by remaining flexible and adaptive and regularly assessing and updating research priorities.

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