The Determination Of Acid Value Levels In Commercial Soya Bean Oil And Olive

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology (SLT)

The Determination Of Acid Value Levels In Commercial Soya Bean Oil And Olive


Abstract


This report outlines the study protocols and compares the results obtained for the acid value. The result indicates that the acid value for commercial Soya bean oil after tide was 0.448mg/g and for commercial olive oil after tide was 23.95mg/g.

The result for iodine value after litre for Soya bean oil was 15.06mg/g and for olive oil was 18.9mg/g. the result for peroxide value for Soya bean oil was 135mE/kg and for olive oil was 180mE/kg.

The result for saprofication value for Soya bean was 83.586/md and for olive oil was 101.8. The result for saponfiable matter for Soya bean was 1.705glmd and for olive oil was 1.847glmol.

The result is often expressed as the percentage of the free acidity. The acid value measures the extent to which the glycerides in the oil have been decomposed by lipase action. The decomposition is accelerated by heat and light.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Objective of Study
  • 1.2 Scope of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Extraction Process
  • 2.2 Composition and Constituent
  • 2.3 Production
  • 2.4 Uses
  • 2.5 Health Benefits
  • 2.6 Fats and Oils
  • 2.7 Free Fatty Acids`
  • 2.8 Sources
  • 2.9 Versality

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Determination of Acid Value
  • 3.2 Determination of Iodine Value
  • 3.3 Determination of Peroxide Value
  • 3.4 Determination of Saponification Value
  • 3.5 Determination of Unsaponnifiable Matter

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion


Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

The most widely grown and utilized legume in the world and health promoting food available today is the Soya bean, like other beans, Soya beans grow in pod featuring edible seeds. While we most often think of them as being green, the seeds can also be yellow, brown or black.

Soya oil and olive oil are vegetable oils, Soya bean oil are extracted from the seeds of the Soya bean (glycine max). Olive oil is an oil obtained from the olive (olea empaea, family oleaceae). Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil of no more than 1.5% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavour. Soya bean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils. As a drying oil, processed Soya bean oil is used as a base for pointing inks (Soya ink) and oil paints.

It is also converted to cooking oils. Soya bean oil is a drying oil which means that it will slowly harden upon exposure to air, forming a flexible transparent and waterproof of solid. Because of this property, it is used in some printing ink and oil paint formulation.

The refined olive oil is the oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alteration in the initial glycerin structure. It has a free acidity expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3grams per 100grams (0.3%) and its other characteristics corresponding to those fixed for this category in this standard. This can be obtained by refining virgin olive oils with a high acidity level and organoleptic defects that are eliminated after refining.


1.1 Objective Of Study

In this experiment we tried to analyze oil to observe or to know the acid value levels and also compares of some different between each other.


1.2 Scope Of Study

The scope of the oil laboratory is on acid value added products resulting in cost effective oil seed processes, feed stocks and product performance in the body. In addition, basic chemical analysis procedures and methodologies are applicable to other vegetable oils.

Oils obtained from oil seeds are also known as fixed oils, as against the essential oils which are more volatile. The primary oil seeds and fixed oils which are Soya bean, Rapeseed, sunflower seed, peanut, cotton seed, copra palm kernel (seed, meat oil) palm oil, olive oil.

Most fixed oils from oil seeds contains lipids, usually in the form of tioglycerides. Lipids may be accumulated in oil seeds in one or both types of seeds such as sun flower, olive oil. It is accumulated in the cotyledons of the embryo. In species such as castor bean, coriander or carrot, the endosperm is the main site of lipids accumulated. An example of a plant in which lipids occur both in the embryo and the endosperm is tobacco.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

This study has shown the acid value level of Soya bean oil and olive oil that it can be concluded that the level of acid value in Soya bean oil is higher than the olive oil.

Furthermore, the iodine value is mostly used for identification of oil or to assign a particular group to the oil. The common method of determining iodine value is Wiji’s method. Also in saponification value it has a higher values than the other values which is very essential in soap making. Free fatty acid can also be determined from the same titration of the acid value.

Having made the above conclusion I make the following recommendations.

  1. To reach the maximum oil values all the steps of determination of the quality of the oils should be carried out with the minimum loses of desirable compounds.
  2. The saponification value is recommended for the preparation of soap making i.e caustic in soap making.
  3. The amount of free fatty acid is essential by determining the quality of alkali that must be added to the fat to render it quite neutral.
  4. The olive oil is more recommended for the soap making because of the high solubility of it.

The Determination Of Acid Value Levels In Commercial Soya Bean Oil And Olive


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