Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

A toilet is a sanitation fixture used for storing or disposal of human urine and feaces. (Oxford Dictionary, 1997). In developed countries, different forms porcelain flush toilets are common. Seats are usually used in west while squat toilets are common in East Asia. These are connected to sewer system in most urban areas and to septic tanks in less built-up areas.

Toilet is also one of public facilities, which is frequently used by people and located indoor. In recent years, Scientist and public have put much concern about indoor air quality in toilet systems. Several studies have found out that indoor air pollution levels to be greater than outdoor levels (USEPA, 2001). Thus it is risky to health posed by indoor air pollution than those posed by outdoor air pollution. Therefore maintaining good air quality in toilet is essential in order to keep it hygienic and sanitary. This is aligned with the statement mentioned by Wike, “in order to create a healthier and safer environment, the first step is the wash room”. In an environment, spores of molds and bacteria may become air borne and are therefore ubiquitous. They can enter indoor areas either by means of ventilation systems. The relative humidity and/or the moisture content of the materials determines that to what extent different micro-organism are able to grow on indoor. (Dhanasekaran et al., 2009).

These may cause destruction, adverse health effects and unpleasant odors. Therefore the task of microbial examinations is to differentiate between normal indoor microorganisms which may cause adverse health effects (Madukasi et al., 2010).

Air sampling of microorganisms is a popular method of conducting microbial examinations, as it allows a direct toxicological evaluation. Specific activities like talking, sneezing, coughing and toilet flushing can generate air borne biological particulate matter and occasionally release spores of Altenaria, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Scopulariopsis into air (Maeir et al., 2002).

Indoor air pollution can be as much more worse than that of outdoor air, it can cause wide range of health problems.

Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment

Project Material Download

3,000 Naira

The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…

Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply

  Contact Our Help Desk

You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search

Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria

Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment


This research material “Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

How to defend your research work

This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Microbial Air Quality Of Toilet Environment” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.