Design And Construction Of Heat Detector

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Design And Construction Of Heat Detector


This project work focuses on the design and construction of heat detector for use in homes, industries, offices etc. It uses thermistor as the heat sensitive element; which is a type of resistor whose resistance changes significantly according to temperature change. The thermistor was connected as a voltage divider to one input therminal of the comparator (Pin 2) of the 555 timer IC as the resistance of the thermistor increases, the voltage at pin 2 decreases. Thus pin 1 becomes high and biases the N.P.N transistor moleing it to drive the 9V input load which activities the alarm circuit with the design of rate-of-heat detector a temperature increase of the sensor, to output is at 75oC or more per minutes; that is to trigger alarm. The heat sensor can be said to be ideal for environments with high dust or rapaid fire development.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The trend of technological advancement in recent times has tremendously transformed the way things are done in man’s day-to-day activities. This is noticed in the case with which fire out break with its smoke is controlled especially in our homes, and industries. Also it is known that various process require temperature monitoring for effective control. Such process include manufacturing process, transportation, security, maintenance and other types of process during which monitoring the thermal characteristic of devices is necessary or advisable. The equipment used for this purpose is the heat detector (sensor). A sensor (detector) is a converter that measures physical quality and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument (Charles & Matthew, 2012). Heat sensor (detector) is a fine alarm device designed to respond when the converted thermal energy of a fire hereases the temperature of a heat sensitive e element. (Ronmancin, 2005). The thermal mass and conductivity of the element regulate the rate of flow of Heat into the element. All heat detectors have this thermal log heat detectors have two main classification of operation rate-of rise and fixed temperature (Baierlein,1999). Fixed temperature heat detectors operate when the ambient temperature increase sufficiently to predetermined level where the heat detector will operate but a rate of-rise heat detector operates when the ambient temperature increases over time equal to or greater than the rate of change the detector has manufactured to operate.

From a thermodynamic perspective, temperature changes is a function of the average energy of molecular movement. As heat is added to a system, molecular motion increases and the system experiences an increase in temperature (Kondepudi & Prigogine, 1998). It is difficult, however, to directly measure the energy of molecular movement, so heat sensors are generally designed to measure a property which changes in response to temperature due to the hotness of the body.

Heat sensors are widely used in many fields, such as house hold electrical appliances and medical appliances, they are also used in mobil communication equipment, for example cellular phones. Heat sensors measures the amount of heat energy that is generated by an object or system allowing it to sense or detect any physical changes to that temperature producing either an analogue or digital output, (Robert, 2000).

Three are many different types of sensors available to measure temperature. The three most common are resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermocouples (TCs) and thermistors. Each of them have the advantage of built-in-signal conditioning and ease of interfacing.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

A heat detector that will respond to fire, not smoke because in some environment alarms can trigger nuisance alarms due to shifts in temperature, and humidity, fumes and insects. Russ porteous produced smoke detector as an essential safety measure in industries. This seminar aims at producing a heat detector that will not respond to smoke.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this work is to design and construct a heat detector. Specifically this work will achieve the following; design a heat sensor that will:

  1. Measure temperature changes due to heat.
  2. Trigger alarm at the detection of increase in hotness of a body or surrounding.
  3. Simple in operation, maintenance and relatively cheap to produce.
  4. Effective in terms of component sourcing and very sensitive to changes in temperature.
  5. That utilizes a thermistor and automatic in operation.

1.4 Significance of the Study

In homes, it is useful in kitchens, unfinished attics, basements, garages, boiler rooms, and other areas where high levels of dust and fumes are present.

In offices, departments, industries and companies etc.

1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of this work concerns the design and construction of heat detector and its uses. The design is based only on the use of thermistor against other types of heat sensors. Though there were many hindrances towards achieving the desired result the design approach was set to achieve the defined target and this includes all conceivable conditions to meet expected performances and efficiency.

1.6 Research Questions

  1. How could temperature change due to heat be measured.
  2. How would it blow alarm at the detection of temperature difference of a body or surrounding.
  3. How will it be effective in terms of component source and sensitivity to changes in temperature.
  4. What makes it simple in operation, maintenance and relatively cheap to produce.
  5. How could it utilize a thermistor and be automatic in operation.

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion

Heat sensor/detector is a fire alarm device designed to respond when the thermal energy of a fire increases the temperature of heat sensitive element (Hughes, 2004). The thermistor which is the sensor was connected as a voltage divider to one. Input terminal of the computer (pin 2) of the 555 timer IC. The resistance of the thermistor changes with change in temperature.

The various experiment carried out were to realize the appropriate components for the divider and its connection. For the circuit to be realized, the voltage at the non-inverting input terminal must be slightly lower than the voltage at the inverting input terminal when the temperature of the heat sensitive element is at room temperature and vice versa. When the temperature of the element increases. However whenever the voltage at the non-inverting terminal is slightly higher than the voltage at the inverting terminal, the output voltage is positive and when it is vice versa, the output became negative. Thus in this device our aim is to achieve positive output whenever the temperature of the heat sensitive element increases which was achieved. Thus when the temperature of the heating element increase, positive voltage is given out at the output. The alarm however triggers whenever the temperature of the heating element increases and stops after a while if the temperature decreases.

5.1 Recommendation

It is hereby recommended that more discoveries and researches should be made further to construct a sensor that will detect smoke but not heat because rate-of-rise and fixed temperature heat detector offer an effective fire safety solution for environment with like hood of rapid fire development. This detectors are designed to monitor the room temperature and activate the alarm if the temperature gets too high or increases rapidly though this project can be adopted for use as a fore-heat or temperature sensor, it cannot be used to detect smoke and world wide because of lack of some features. These features include; inability to display the temperature of each hot object detected inability to detect and differentiate each hot object that is close or in contact with it. These limitations listed above are practically possible. Therefore research should be carried out further to develop and design the product that will incorporate such features mentioned above.

5.2 Conclusion

From the on-going, it can be extensively deduced that new trend in technology has aided tremendous changes in human life. Thus many inventions and innovations have been developed and adopted to make man’s activities in life refreshed. However researches have been carried out and effort made in this project to design and develop a heat sensing device which can be used in a variety of analogy applications. The primary purpose of the device is to respond to changes in temperature by triggering alarm whenever a fire or hot object increases the temperature of a heat sensitive element attached to it. Computer aided design in proteus environment and simulation was used in achieving this project design. Despite the few problems encountered during the course of the project development, it was finally successful.

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