Design And Construction Of An Automatic Change-Over Switch With Generator Cut Off And Starter

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Design And Construction Of An Automatic Change-Over Switch With Generator Cut Off And Starter


Power supply in Nigeria and most developing countries of the world is anything but stable. This has adverse effects on the consumers of the electricity and the equipments that are operated from the mains sources of electricity supply in these parts of the world. Automatic change over switch system is used to ensure continuous supply to load in case the mains supply is not healthy or disconnected. This project designs and constructs of an automatic change over switch with generator starter and cut-off. In this paper, we provide an automatic switching mechanism that transfers the consumer loads to a power source from a generator in the case of power failure in the main supply. It automatically detects when power has been restored to the mains supply and returns the loads to this source while turning off the power from the generator set. This mechanism has been tested and we recorded a great result. It thus holds an important key in the provision of a continuous power supply through an ear seamless switching between the mains supply and an alternative stand by source like the generator set.

Table of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives
  • 1.4 Scope of the Study
  • 1.5 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Core Concept of Phase Selector
  • 2.2 Manually Controlled Phase Selector
  • 2.2.1 Limitations of Manual Changeover System
  • 2.3 Sequential Logic-Controlled Phase Selector (SLC)
  • 2.3.1 Disadvantages of Sequential Logic Control System
  • 2.4 Microprocessor-Based Control
  • 2.4.1 Microcontroller Based Controls
  • 2.4.2 Computer-Based Controls
  • 2.5 Description of the New System
  • 2.6 Transfer Switches
  • 2.6.1 Automatic Transfer Switch (ATS)
  • 2.6.2 Solid Static Transfer Switch (SSTS)
  • 2.7 Related Components in the System Design
  • 2.7.1 Switch Gear
  • 2.7.2 Relays
  • 2.7.3 Transformers
  • 2.7.4 ฮผA741 Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp)
  • 2.7.5 Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC16F84)

Chapter Three

System Methodology and Design

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Analysis of the Existing System
  • 3.3 Analysis of the Proposed System
  • 3.4 Proposed System Methodology
  • 3.5 System Design
  • 3.5.1 Block Diagram
  • 3.5.2 Realization of Power Section
  • 3.6 Operation of the Control Circuit
  • 3.6.1 Operation: – Auto Mode
  • 3.7 System Development
  • 3.7.1 First Stage
  • 3.7.2 Second Stage
  • 3.7.3 Third Stage
  • 3.7.4 Fourth Stage
  • 3.7.5 Final Stage

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Testing
  • 4.3 Results
  • 4.3.1 Output Readings
  • 4.4 Cost Analysis
  • 4.5 Discussion

Chapter Five

Conclusions and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Public power supply is a major contributor to economic development in every nation. In developing nations like Nigeria, Ghana, Cote dโ€™Ivoire and under developed parts of the world, the public power supply for industrial, commercial and domestic use is highly unstable (Peter, 2002). This has negative effect on the economy in such that most of them had to depend on frequent use of alternative power sources such as generator, inverter, solar to meet up with the energy demands. One of the common alternate sources depended on is the use of generator set which is usually connected to a changeover switch and the public power supply also connected to the switch also. The application of alternative sources of power supply is being faced with the challenge of switching smoothly and timely between the mains supply and the generator supply whenever there is power failure on the mains source and vice versa. (Ransorne, 2009).

Automatic Changeover switch with generator cut off and starter is one of the electrical devices that can aid smooth switching from public supply to generator and vice versa. It automatically switches from one power source to another. When there is power failure in the public supply it starts the generator and switches to the supply (generator) and it equally switches over to the mains supply when power is restored and turns off the generator automatically. The automatic power changeover switch with generator cut off and starter is a device that links the load and mains supply or the alternative supply together. This enables the use of either the mains supply or an alternative source when there is outage on the mains source without the user intervention. The changeover switch can either come in with three phase or single phase. This device maintains constant power supply to the load by automatically activating the generator when there is need. Since the user might not always be in need of the generator, provision has been made to prevent the generator from starting should an outage occur. Therefore, in view of these considerations, the project aimed at designing and constructing a workable automatic change-over switch with generator cut off and starter functions.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The frequent of power outages in developing countries like the case of Nigeria creates a need for automation of electrical power generation or alternative sources of power to back up the utility supply. This automation becomes important since the rate of power outage becomes predominantly high. Most industries and commercial processes are partly dependent on generators and public power supply which is epileptic especially in Nigeria. Therefore, if the processes of power change-over between these two power supplying sources are manual, human error during change-over leading to machine damage, electric shock/electrocution as well as increased down time consequently introducing massive losses. However, if the starting of the generator is automatically done by a relay which switches the battery voltage to ignition coil of the generator while the main power relay switches the load to either public supply or generator, the down time would greatly be reduce thereby maintaining the tempo of production. In view of the background, this project tends to focus on the design and construction of an automatic changeover switch with generator cut off and starter.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

This project is centered on design and construction of an automatic change-over switch with generator cut off and starter.

However, the specific objectives are as follow;

  1. To design a device that automatically switches on the generator and switch over the load to the generator whenever there is mains power failure.
  2. To sort and examine various components to be used for the construction of automatic changeover switch
  3. To design and integrate the sub-units of the automatic changeover switch
  4. To carryout a test on the sub-units design of the automatic changeover switch

1.4 Scope of the Study

The scope of this project is focus on designing and construction of a change-over switch with cut off and starter of a generator with the capacity of 3.5KVA.It also revolves around a project that is designed for power supply applications. It involves automatic changeover between the main power supply and an auxiliary power supply, such as a generator. The project implements an automatic switching or starting of the power generator whenever the main power fails.

1.5 Limitation of the Study

Some of the limitations of the automatic changeover design are;

  1. The design cannot function with a generator that is not auto-start.
  2. It does not function properly for a generator higher than 3KVA.
  3. The design of the automatic changeover switch with cut off and starter does not function with a faulty generating set
  4. The design will not function properly when there is no engine stopper in the generator.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance of this work cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, benefits that are associated to the change-over switch are;

  1. It minimizes damages to lives and equipment since it has its own monitoring system and its switching requires no human contact with the switch, thus eliminating human error.
  2. It reduces change-over time to a minimum, due to its fast response to power restoration
  3. It maintains high quality of service through its fast and prompt response.
  4. Moreover, the unit is portable, easy, convenient and safe to install.

Chapter Five

Conclusions and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In other to eliminate this human intervention as well as introduce some speed and precision in the operation, there is the need for an automatic changeover switch. This is typically a switching system whose function is based on the predetermined configuration of the unit. It selects the available power source without the intervention of the user, to ensure the availability of supply at all times provided that at least one power source is available. The change from one source to another can only be achieved by device or a system that determines when the change should actually take place and which source to be given preference to supply the load. This brings about the need for unique control system. The basic problem to be addressed is how to connect two different sources of electrical power simultaneously to a single unit (the automatic changeover switch) that can serve as a link between these power sources and the load or network. Moreover, preference is given to the power sources such that only one source supplies the load at a time and when the first (mains) source fails, the link immediately connects the second (generator) source to the load. The three phase automatic transfer switch is needed in every home because of the following advantages:

  1. Its reliability
  2. Its durability
  3. It is affordable
  4. Its ability to provide immediate automatic switching from the public power source to other sources.

It is recommended that further work be done on this transfer switch on a larger scale, for instance an automatic change-over switch that can cater for an estate.

5.2 Recommendation

The automatic three phase 40 amps transfer switch has immense advantage in every area where power is required. It is a fact that there is hardly any aspect of human life where electrical power is not required, at homes, offices, hospitals, etc. It finds a wide application scope wherever the reliability of electrical supply from the utilities is low and is used wherever continuity of supply is necessary, for switching to an alternative source from main supply and vice versa.

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