Construction Of An Intelligent Battery Charger Of 220V A.C,12V D.C. Using Microprocessor With Seven Segment Display 

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


This project provides a careful treatment on construction of intelligent battery charger which the principal tasks undertaken are the performance of a control program which involves sensing and monitoring of voltage. An intelligent battery charger may monitor the battery’s voltage, temperature and/or time under charge to determine the optimum charge current at that instant.

In the first and second chapters, the introduction and the deep concept of intelligent battery charger are explicitly explained. The third and fourth chapters show cased the component descriptions used in this project and the working principal operation. Finally, in the chapter five, a conclusion was drawn and recommendations made for real and extensive wide usage.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Contents Page
  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 What Is A Battery Charger
  • 1.2 What Is An Intelligent Battery Charger
  • 1.3 Other Type Of Battery Chargers

Chapter Two

Literature Review


Chapter Three

Component Description

  • 3.1 Atmel 8952 Microcontroller
  • 3.2 Microcontroller Section
  • 3.3 Resistor
  • 3.4 Transistor
  • 3.5 Seven Segment Display
  • 3.6 Capacitors
  • 3.7 Transformer
  • 3.8 Diodes

Chapter Four

Principle Of Operation

  • 4.1 Intelligent Battery Charger
  • 4.2 Voltage Comparator
  • 4.3 Microcontroller Section
  • 4.4 Display Section
  • The Circuit Diagram
  • Component List
  • Controller Program

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 What Is A Battery Charger:

A battery charger is a device used to put energy into a secondary cell or rechargeable battery. By forcing on electric current through it.

The charge current depends upon the technology and capacity of the battery being charged. For example, the current that should be applied to recharge a 12v car battery will be very different from the current for a mobile phone battery.


1.2 What Is An Intelligent Battery Charger:

This is a battery charger whose output current depend upon the battery’s state. An intelligent charger may monitor the battery’s voltage, temperature and/ or time under charge to determine the optimum charge current at that instant. Charging is terminated when a combination of the voltage, temperature and/or time indicates that the battery is fully charged.


1.3 Other Type Of Battery Chargers

1. Simple Battery Charger:

A simple charger works by connecting a constant dc power source to the battery being charged. A simple charger does not alter its output based on time or the charge on the battery. This simplicity means that a simple charger is inexpensive but there is a trade off in quality.

2. Trickle Battery Charger:

A trickle charger is a kind of simple charger that charges the battery slowly, at the self-discharge rate. A trickle charger is the slowest kind of battery charger.

3. Timer-Based Battery Charger:

The output of timer charger is terminated after a predetermined time. Timer chargers were the most common type for high-capacity Ni-Cd cells in the late 1990s

4. Fast Battery Charger:

Fast chargers make use of control circuitry in the batteries being charged to rapidly charge the batteries without damaging the cells element. Most such chargers have a cooling fan to help keep the temperature of the cells under control.

5. Pulse Battery Charger:

Some charger use pulse technology in which a pulse is fed to the battery. This DC pulse has a strictly controlled rise time, pulse width, pulse repetitive rate (frequency) and amplitude. This technology is used to work with any size, voltage, capacity or chemistry of batteries including automotive and valve-regulated batteries. .

6. Inductive Battery Charger:

Inductive battery chargers use electromagnetic induction to charge batteries. A charging station sends electromagnetic energy through inductive coupling to an electrical device which stores the energy in the batteries

7. USB-Based Battery Charger:

Since the universal serial bus specification provides for a five-volt power supply, it is possible to use a USB cable as a power source for recharging batteries.


Chapter Five


5.1 Conclusion

The importance of an intelligent battery charger cannot be over-emphasized since there is a high level of inconsistency in other types of battery charger. This is seen in the over charging of battery which is not a good and healthy practices.

This necessitates the need to use an intelligent battery charger as it disengages the battery from the charging circuit once the battery is fully charged.


5.2 Recommendations

Due to the economic and technical advantage of a rechargeable battery system over dry cells, we recommend that it should be the pre dominant battery in use for all system.

We recommend that full wave bridge rectifier be used since it requires a smaller transformer without centre tapping.

Also the full wave bridge rectifier circuit has less peak reverse voltage (PRV) and it is suitable for high voltage application.

Finally, intelligent charger fast charges a battery up to about 83% of it maximum capacity in less than an hour, then other types of charger. Hence we recommend its wide usage.


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