The Design And Construction Of A 2000W Inverter

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


Due to frequent unexpected power interruption being encountered in our societies nowadays, from the power supply authority, it has caused a lot of fatalities, inconveniences, data loss and serious business disruption and other related damages. The power inverter came into play in order to solve these problems.

This electronic device (inverter) maintains a continous supply of electric power to the connected loads by supplying power from a battery when utility power is interrupted or not available.

The function of this device (inverter) is to change a dc input voltage to a symmetrical a.c output voltage of desired frequency and magnitude.

  • The chapter one of this work deals with the introduction
  • Chapter two focuses solely on the literature review of the inverter
  • Chapter three discusses on the inverter system and its components.
  • Chapter four is the circuit diagrams of the inverter and its operation
  • Chapter five is the conclusion of the work with special recommendation. It also has the bibliography.

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Inverter is known as DC to AC converter. The main work of an inverter is to change a DC input voltage to AC output Ac voltage of desired magnitude and frequency. A variable output v9olateg can be obtained by varying the input voltage and maintaining the gain of the inverter constant. On the other hand, the dc input voltage is fixed and it is not controllable, a variable output voltage can be obtained by varying the gain of the inverter, which is normally accomplished by pulse width modulation (PWM) control within the inverter.

The output voltage wave forms of ideal inverter should be sinusoidal. However, the waveforms of practical inverters are sinusoidal and contain certain harmonics. For low- and medium-power application, square wave or quasi-square-wave voltage may be acceptable, and for high power applications, low distorted sinusoidal waveforms are required. With the availability of high speed power semiconductor devices, the harmonic contents of output voltage can be minimized or reduced significantly by switching techniques.

Inverter can use controllable turn on and turn off devices (e.g. BI Polar junction transistor (BJT), Metaloxide semiconductor Field effect transistor (MOSFETS) etc. or forced commutated thyristors depending on applications. These inverters generally use pulse modulation (PWN) to control signals for producing an ac output voltage. An inverter is called a voltage-fed inverter (VFI) if the input voltage remains constant, a current-fed inverter (CFI) if the input current is maintained constant, and a variable dc linked inverter if the input voltage is controllable.

In Nigeria in particular, the electrical grid is under increasing strain particularly during heavy demand and sometimes insufficient megawatts generated, due to scheduled and unscheduled outages.


1.1 Below Are Some Power Problems That An Inverter Can Solve

  1. Power failure- Total loss of utility power
  2. Power sag – short term under voltage
  3. Power surge (spike)- quick burst of over voltage
  4. Under voltage – low line voltage for an extended period of time
  5. Over voltage- increased voltage for an extended period of time
  6. Line noise – distortions superimposed on the power waveform.
  7. Switching transient – under-voltage of over voltage for up to a few nano seconds.
  8. Harmonic distortion – multiple of power frequency superimposed on the power waveform.

1.2 Choosing An Inverter

There are factors to BE considered when choosing an inverter system

1. WATTAGE (W): The wattage rating represents the maximum amount of load that can be plugged into an inverter in different ways. The connected load typically should not exceed 80% of the inverter rating. Special consideration should be made when connecting certain equipment such as printers, photocopies or any type of motorized load.

2. Amount of run time the unit could be able to provide when the power fails. This number varies with the load amount that is plugged into the inverter. For example, a unit may run a single computer for 30 minutes, but with 2 computers plugged in, it might only last for 15 minutes.


1.3 Care For The Inverter

  1. Do not overload the inverter
  2. The inverter should be kept in a clean and dry place
  3. Always handle the inverter with care
  4. The sealed load/acid battery has a useful life of 2-5 years. It should be replaced within this period.

This material contains electrical diagrams, circuits, illustrations and more (Very detailed)


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion

This power inverter (2000w) serves as an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). It is a power supply device that includes a battery to maintain power in the event of power outage.

It is used to ensure absolute continuity of power to the computerized control systems thereby protecting critical equipment from electrical supply failures, such as computers, telecommunication equipment and any other sensitive electrical equipment-where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries and fatalities, and serious business disruption or data loss.

The inverter (2000w) is capable of producing 240Vac (alternating current) supply from an input voltage of 12Vdc (Direct current) sources power supply.

The voltmeter helps to display in analogue format the output voltage. The LEDs, (light emitting diodes) indicate the operation of the relays, when the supply battery is fully charged or battery low.


5.1 Economics And Simplicity Of The Project

  1. It uses one power transformer for the inverter circuit, charging circuit and PHCN power supply.
  2. It uses high power MOSFETs of 230w each to achieve the desired output wattage.
  3. The circuit pulse generator is a simple single IC that could be troubleshooted easily.
  4. It has a voltage amplification (BJT network) current amplification (MOSFET network) and the power amplification (Transformer).

The above statements ensure that the Design and Construction of the 2000w inverter was economical and very simple.


5.2 Recommendation

Where possible, MOSFETs with higher rating should be used in order to reduce its number (amount). This will go a long way in reducing the size of the inverter circuit and cutting down cost.

Relays do have make/break contact which tends to wear out with time, thus rendering then ineffective. In this regard, use of thyristors with good heat dissipation mechanism could be adopted.

Furthermore, lead/acid battery of smaller size with the same (12v) or higher voltage rating can be employed as the d.c source in order to reduce the size of the casing/housing.

Finally, I recommend also that the inverter should be designed in such a way that it can be charging its battery (self charging) when it is ON; so that even if there is no external power supply to charge the battery, it can also charge itself as long as the inverter is running.


The Design And Construction Of A 2000W Inverter


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