Design And Construction Of 500VA Power Inverter System With Inbuilt Battery Supply
500VA power inverter system is a DC to AC conversion system of 500VA power rating and expected to carry around 400 watts load. It provides power to electronic and electrical appliances such as radio sets, TV DVD/VCD, computers, fans and lighting. The design was conceived and put down as block diagram. Corresponding circuit diagrams for each black box were sourced and drawn. The component values according to desired specifications were designed from the first principle and needed values derived. The transformer was also designed and with measurements and component values we went to the market.
Most of the transistors were not in the market and order was made with the trader and they were later collected. These components were first wired on project board, tested before being removed and transferred to veroboard where they were soldered permanently and tested. The tests carried out were successfully including the capacity of the transformer and the transformer stability and hum-free operation. The circuit veroboard and transformer along with meters, switches, indicators and output sucket were all carefully packaged inside the system box and test carried out again. This financial test was also successful.
The Background of the Problem
Power inverter system is a unit developed for the conversion of direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC) to serve electronic and electrical appliances, such as radio sets, television sets, DVD/VCD, computer, photocopying machine etcetera and also provide lighting and power to fans. Inverter systems could be used in conjunction with the solar energy conversion system for the harnessing of solar power energy and also as vital part of uninterrupted power surprise system.
The concept and development of power inverter system because necessary of the poor national power supply system that resulted in incessant power supply and power outages. Power inverter is also found in use where there is no supply of electricity in the first place.
The Purpose / Objective / Aim of the Project
The purpose of the project is to design and construct a 500VA power inverter system for the supply of A.C power to serve load of about 400watts power (the active or real power, 500VA x 0.8 = 400 watts).
The objective of the project is to ensure that the research produce an inverter and step-up transformer that would be able to transform few D.C voltage of about 12 voltage to up to 220 volt A.C 50Hz obtainable from the national power supply. Electronic appliances designed and constructed for use in Nigeria are meant to work at the designed specification of 220/230 Volt AC, 50Hz in contrast to similar equipment meant to work in a country like Japan whose national electric power supply is 110 volt A.C., 60Hz.
The designed and constructed power inverter system in accordance with the specification of national power supply will not discriminate against any equipment nor serve only a particular electronic appliance. The inverter system will be universally accepted by any system operating in Nigeria or in countries that adopted same specification. BY this, the aim of the project design and construction must have been achieved.
Scope of the Project
This project is on the design and construction of 500VA power inverter system with an in-built battery supply. In the first place, the 12 VDC battery is not part of the system to be designed implemented. The scope of the project includes designing and deriving the component values of all the circuits involved for the implementation of this project. These components are sourced and fixed in the vero board according to the determined circuitry, wired and tested through. The circuitry is completed by the design of transformer laminations and coils or windings, packaging and clamping of these laminations to air tight condition and testing through to ensure the specified rating of 400W which will supply a real power of 500VA x 0.8.
The scope of the project also coverted testing of the entire system after packaging in a metal construction with vent that will ensure in-let of air as coolant to the transformer that is expected to generate heat while in operation including power transistors.
The power inverter system produced cannot work along wired installation of power supply from the national grid unless other units are incorporated. It works on stand alone bases where no power was extended from the national into operation intermittently.
Limitation of the Study
The major limitation in this project is seeking for a standard workshop with necessary tools for the cutting and packing of the laminations and coiling of the windings of the transformer. Sourcing exact values of designed and extracted components posed another serious challenge because the sellers of the components in the market only buy for part replacement by radio technicians and not mainly for research purposes.
Finally, finance posed a great problem in accomplishing this project since that task meant for four students was later carried out by only two students without reduction in capacity or in any form at all. Combination of the research activities coupled with normal classroom work, especially the graduating class, was of serious stress to the researchers.
However, at the end, a good job was achieved and those served as exposure to working under pressure, reminiscence of what could be expected in the field. We are seriously being prepared.
Definition of Operational Terms:
An oscillator is an electronic device (circuit) designed to produce an alternating amf of desired frequency and amplitude from adc source without an external input.
Multivibrators are class of oscillator that provide and output voltage of rectangular or square wave form. Three
Types of multivibrators are;
- Astable (free running)
- Bitable (or filp flop)
Is a type of multivariate that acts as an oscillator, and operation continuously to provide a rectangular waveform with particular values of phase repetition frequency.
Is a device that carry our signal amplification through a ration of change in output signal to a corresponding change in input signal with or without external connection.
Transistor is a semiconductor triode, called a bipolar function transistor, consisting of silicon (or germanium) crystal in which layer of n-type material is sandwiched between tow layers of p-type silicon to form P-N-P transistor. Alternatively, a transistor consist or a layer or p type between tow layers of n-type material to form an n-p-n transistor.
Metal oxide semi conductor filed effect transistor (MOSFET) is a type of field effect transistor where increase in drain source voltage VDS do not produce prepositional increase in drain current ID. It operations on the principle of single pole charge carrier movement (hole or electron charge movement) as against bi-polar transistor where both hole and electron constitute the charge carrier in one form of transistor.
In conclusion to this chapter the mode of the organization of the report will be treated below.
- In chapter one, the introduction of the system under implementation was treated. This included background of the project. The scope covered by the project was clearly stated and problems encountered that limited achievement by the researchers were also highlighted.
- Chapter two handled review of related literatures to the project under consideration. These included the principles surrounding the major circuit implementation of the system as a lead to the actual circuits sourced for the system design.
- Chapter three treated the design methodology, block diagram and actual design and derivation of components and their values. It was concluded by the joining of different circuits adopted into an overall circuit diagram of the system.
- Chapter four was treated the system construction, testing and packaging. The outcome of the tests carried out was also discussed in this chapter.
- Chapter five was a table that detailed the bill of engineering measurement and evolution. Simply, this was the listing of components and items deigned and sourced for, their prices and total price of the system costs.
- However, the summary, conclusion and recommend ion were discussed in chapter six to be followed on the rear by references and appendices.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The design and construction of a 500VA power inverter system with in –built battery source was successful in every aspect. The conceived block diagram of the system showed the operation of the system and the implementation followed the pattern of the block diagram and was satisfactory. Specially, attention was paid on the construction of the transform and this as well paid- off.
The researchers persevered in sourcing of the desired component until standard values were sourced and purchased. Nearly all the transistor were booked with the traders and they specifically ordered for them and that was a good idea indeed.
Successful wiring of the component was a lead from initial connection and testing on project board before being transferred into the verboard. The packaging of the items were cautiously done to avoid short circuit or even disconnection or breaking of the electrodes of the components.
The final testing, however, was successful and this elevated the spirit of the researchers as this now boosted their confidence to tackle furthers system designs and constructions in the feature. Project writing also followed the specified guide and this was also eventful.
The design and construction of a 500VA power inverter system with in- built battery source is a very important unit in the home of office for the supply of A.C power to the equipment, appliance and lighting installations. If found use in an area with out electric power supply or where national power supply is not satisfactory for the company of appropriate load as specified. This system went ahead of other known inverter system because of the- built batter source.
It is recommended for use by computer business centers, offices, in the villages where there is no electricity, in research institutions at out sketch of the city and in homes. It should be avoided to connect air conditioner or pressing iron on to the system except where all other loads were disconnected.
Any student venturing into the research and implementation of this system need to involve an automatic switching part and monitor so that it can be found useful where electricity is supplied but with ‘epileptic’ operation. The important part will make the power inverter system operate like uninterruptible power supply for home or more load use as against the present used of UPS for a single appliance or equipment.
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