The Construction Of Automatic Voltage Inverter And A Battery Charger

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

The Construction Of Automatic Voltage Inverter And A Battery Charger


Abstract


Automotive voltage inverter is an important area in power system engineering. It is the process of using a 12v DC from the battery to achieve a 220/230V AC through the help of oscillator, drivers, power transistors and transformer. The stages are battery to oscillators, oscillators to drivers, drivers to power transistors then from power transistors to transformer which is capable of giving out 220/230V (1000w) as an output. A 1.25KVA (1000w) voltage inverter was constructed, tested and certified okay. Since the inverter as constructed to step-up voltage, the power transformer is used as step-down for charging and as step up transformer for inverting. This project helps in the improvement of the epileptic power supply we are having in Nigeria and it also reduce the high level of power dependence in Nigeria by serving as IPP’s (Independent Power Plants). The project as run in school helps in equipping the students in the practical aspect of the course.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Analysis (review of existing system)
  • Aims and objective
  • Scope/Limit of the project
  • Application

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • Introduction
  • Brief review of used components
  • Capacitor
  • Resistor
  • Relay
  • Transistors
  • Diodes
  • Switches
  • Operational amplifier
  • Transformer
  • A.C. Voltage meter
  • Oscillator
  • MOSEFET

Chapter Three

Design and Analysis

  • Introduction
  • Methodology
  • D.C. Supply (input voltage)
  • Voltage regulator
  • Control logical circuit
  • Frequency generator
  • Phase splitter
  • Driver
  • Step-up transformer
  • A.C. supply (output voltage)
  • Methodology II
  • The unregulated supply (input voltage)
  • Isolating relay
  • Step-up transformer/rectifier circuit
  • Changing control/logic comparator circuit
  • Theory and calculation
  • Circuit diagram casing design

Chapter Four

Constructions Test and Result

  • Introduction
  • Problem encountered

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

Electrical power being one of the basic criteria for the measurement of development in a country is basic necessity. It is the responsibility of any responsible government to provide stable, cheap and uninterruptible power supply to its citizens through the provision of adequate electrical infrastructures.

Since the advent of the first electricity, generator, and many other forms of generators have been development for the conversion of various forms of energy into electricity. These includes, hydro power generator in hydro power stations, gasoline and diesel fired generators, gas turbine generators, solar generators, steam turbine generators, wind turbine generators and fuel all electric power generators. All the above forms of generators have proved potent but due to disadvantage or drawback or one lead to he invention of another.

All these generators mentioned above are:

  1. Difficult to step up (gas plant)
  2. Expensive (fuel)
  3. Time consuming
  4. Noisy during operation (generators)
  5. Pollution

When all these were put into consideration he invention of inverters became necessary due to its following features as listed below:

  • Small in size
  • Easy to set up
  • Less expansive
  • Noise free

An inverter is a DC – To-AC converter device that is one efficient in operation. Hence in advanced countries the use of solar panel is being employed to convert radiant energy, the butteries for effective operation of the inverter.

As the saying goes “necessity is the mother of invention” therefore, the need for inverter has become necessary in a country like Nigeria to help boost power supply so as to enhance economic growth of the people and the entire nation at large


Analysis / Review of Existing System

The un-automated inverter is not really an inverter is just made up of circuit compilation via transistors and transformer to produce A.C voltage.

Most foreign inverters are low power inverters that cannot withstand a load up to 12.5KVA due to the use of some fragile components. E.G. BJT transistor.

Some local technicians can construct an inverter with no control, i.e. some additional features to enhance the performance of the inverter during operation.


Aims and Objectives

This project is designed to improve on the existing system by not only having in place those thing is some of existing one like automatic trip off when battery voltage drops fully charge, cut off when the battery has reached its peak voltage. The use of MASFET, as rectifier is to charge the battery (in built charger).


Scope / Limit Of The Project

The design of this project is limited to input voltage of about 12v capable of delivering circuit ranging from 45A to 400 A D.C.

Although it can be extended further but for high capacity the input voltage should be increased as to minimize the current. The effect of this is that, the higher he current the larger the cross sectional area of conductors that will be used.

This project can withstand load range from – – 800w, 50Hz at 20 – 220v input.

A load of 1000w cannot be attained due to some losses from various part of the design such as transformer losses. 1000w is the power at no load.


Application

His project can be used to supply A.C. of 200 – 220V from input voltage of 12V, provided the input current dos not rise above 15A, when a load of 700w is applied.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

Conclusion

The automatic voltage inverter which is the result of this project is capable of producing 220v supply from an input voltage of 12v which is a direct current source of power supply.

The voltmeter helps to display in analogue format the output voltage. The red-green led indicates the operation of the relays when fully charged and if the supply battery is low for safety reasons the indicators must come on to ensure that the control circuit is not malfunctioning else, the output voltage on the voltmeter has to be read to ensure that the required result is produced.

Automatic voltage inverter generator of a DC voltage supply is essential for the production of A.C voltage when there is PHCN failure.


Recommendations

Where possible voltage comparator with high slow rate should be engaged for fast switching of the relay whose result can make the switching action almost instantaneous with changes in the input voltage thereby going along way to protect the life span of the battery.

Also, for a more drivable circuit arrangement of the working diagram should be produced on a printed circuit board (PCB) as this will enhance mass production of the circuit cards. Furthermore, precision resistors with little or no tolerance can be used in place of the variable resistor so that required frequency can be produced.

More so, in relays do have make break contact, which tends to wear out with time thus rendering them ineffective. In this regard use of traces (thyristors) can be adopted with suitable irrigating circuits and good heat dissipation mechanism.

In conclusion, the principle of self is charging when the inverter is switch on for continuous running. Self cycling as in trickle charge so that even when there is no external power supply to charge the battery it can also charge itself as long as the automatic voltage inverter is running.


The Construction Of Automatic Voltage Inverter And A Battery Charger


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