Design And Construction Of (12V-to-220V) Electrical Inverter

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


Failure in power supply has been a very big problem to mankind and this has led to man sourcing for an alternative. Back in the days, people use heaps of fire woods and stones to create lightings but today the case is different because of the advent of various sources of power supply.

These sources include hydropower, gas turbine and others but all these are utility power supply which can fail one time or the other. Apart from failure, their sources of energy are limited and are sometimes scarce leading to failure.

Today, technologies have introduced the electric inverter which can convert battery DC voltage to AC voltage. Inside this devices can be coupled an electric charging system which can charge the battery when there is power supply from utility power source.

When this power source fails, the battery in turn supplies the inverter with DC which is being inverted to AC. Sometimes the inverter can also be connected to renewable energy source like solar, wind or geothermal. These sources are all round supply of D.C for the inverter.

Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for developing countries. In rural and remote areas, transmission and distribution of energy generated from fossil fuels can be difficult and expensive. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative.

Renewable energy projects in many developing countries have demonstrated that energy is needed for creating businesses and employment. Renewable energy technologies can also make indirect contributions to alleviating poverty by providing energy for cooking, space heating and lighting. Renewable energy can also contribute to education, by providing electricity to schools.

For easy understanding, this project report is carefully divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives an introduction and basic electronics, chapter two is a review of literatures as regards the project topic, chapter three details on the research and design while chapter four explains the process of construction and principle of operation finally, chapter five is the summary and conclusion.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Tale of Contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Project
  • 1.2 Objective/Importance of the Project
  • 1.3 Use of the project
  • 1.4 Inverter and Ups

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review


Chapter Three

3.0 Research and Design Methodology

  • 3.1 Research method
  • 3.2 Circuit diagram of the inverter
  • 3.3 Components identification and values
  • 3.4 Functions of components
    • Circuit Description
  • 3.5. Electrical inverter

Chapter Four

4.0 Construction and Principle of Operation

  • 4.1 Steps involved in building the circuit
  • 4.2. Principle of Operation

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Reference

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Project

From the late nineteenth century through the middle of the twentieth century, DC-to-AC power conversion was accomplished using rotary converters or motor-generators sets (G-G sets). In the early twentieth century, vacuum tubes and gas filled rubes began to be used as switches in inverter circuits. The most widely used type of tube was the Thyratron.

The origins of electromechanical inverters explain the source of the term inverter. Early AC-to-DC converters used an induction or synchronous AC motor direct-connected to a generator (dynamo) so that the generator commutator reversed its connections at exactly the right moments to produce DC. A later development is the synchronous converter, in which the motor and generator windings are combined into one armature, with slip rings at one end and a commutator at the other and only one field frame. The result with either is AC-in, DC-out.

With an M-G set, the DC can be considered to be separately generated from the AC; with a synchronous converter, in a certain sense it can be considered to be “mechanically rectified A.C.” Given the right auxiliary and control equipment, an M-G set or rotary converter can be “run backwards”, converting DC to AC. Hence an inverter is an inverted converter.


1.2 Objectives / Importance Of The Project

The main objective of this project is to have a device which ensures that there is an alternative power source in case of any form of power failure from utility power supply.

An inverter is an electrical or electromechanical device that converts direct current (DC) to alternative current (AC); the resulting AC can be at any required appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits.

Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications. From small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries. From the above illustration, it can be said that another important objective of this project is to design a device which can convert the readily available DC into the unavailable AC.


1.3 Uses Of The Project

An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage. Grid tie inverters can feed energy back into the distribution network because they produce alternating current with the same wave distribution system. They can also switch off automatically in the event of a blackout. Micro-inverters convert direct current from individual solar panel into alternating current for the electric grid.


1.4 Inverter And Ups

An uninterruptible power supper is a device which supplies the stored electrical power to the load in case of raw power cut-off or blackout. One type of UPS uses batteries to store power and can inverter to supply AC power from the batteries when main power is not available. When main power is restored, a rectifier is used to supply DC power to recharging the batteries.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

In summary, power supply simply refers to the generation and supply of electrical power used for driving electrical and electronics load. Devices that falls in this category include mechanical generators, electrical inverters and un-interrupted power suppliers. All of these power generations convert one form of energy into electrical energy. This form of energy is continually replenished or renewed by the user of operator.

In this particular project, DC supply is gotten from either a battery or solar panel and converted into AC supply by an electric inverter. The solar energy is gotten from the sun, stored in a battery and also used to power the inverter. This energy from the run is solar energy and its converted into direct electrical current by the solar panel. On the other hand, the battery can be charged with a converter which connects to the utility power supply. The direct electrical current is in turn converted into alternating electrical current by the electric inverter. At this point, we have the alternating current which can be used to power almost every electrical appliance found in our homes and offices.


Recommendation

This project if it is mass produce it will go a long way to helping people in the rural area where utility power supply is not stable. We recommend that Government should help in mass production of this project so that it will be cheaper and affordable and also create employment opportunity, or reduce unemployment. Thereby help to alleviate poverty especially in the developing countries


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