Conflict And Conflict Resolution In Public Sector (A Case Of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri)
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This work is dedicated to God Almighty for his love and protection, wisdom and understanding in writing this project.
Further more, I dedicated this work to my parent Elder and Mrs. Nworu Nwakauba E. and also to my uncle Barr and Mrs. Okoso David.
I would like to express my profound gratitude to all those who have assisted in many ways towards the production of this work.
My sincere thanks goes to my great supervisor, Mr. Oruebor A. A (Zulu) whose professional endless and fatherly guidance and directives went a long way in the actualization of this particular work.
My endless gratitude also goes to my kind hearted HOD Mr. Erondu N. A and to other great lecturers in Public Administration Department Mr. Onwubiko, Mr. Okparaku, Mrs. Lucy and all the lecturers in the department of Public Administration.
My gratitude also goes to my beloved parents Elder and Mrs. Nworu Nwakauba E. and my uncle Barr. and Mrs. Okoso David for their financial support in my Academics pursuit. I pray that God Almighty should see them through in all their endeavours, I won’t forget to dot off my cap for my beloved sisters and brothers Rose, Vivian, Ann, Scholastical, Calista, Sussan, Stella and also and also my friends Tonia, Tochi, Justice, (Mkpo), Chukwuemeka (Flaga), Kelvin J, Chijioke, Sunny, Bliss B.
Finally, I thank all those who have in one way or the other contributed to the success of this work.
This work, conflict and conflict aims as providing a firsthand information on how conflict can be resolved effectively in an public sector. From the onset, one should state the fact that conflict does not necessary indicate managerial failure rather, it is inevitable and an essential part of organizational behaviour. Conflict occurs when two or more people want the same thing or pursue different goals. And there is no enough resource for that based on this scarcity conflict has become an everyday occurrence in our personal and job lives.
The views and ideas of scholars who emphasis on the topic are also discussed, in the case of research methodology the research explains the techniques used in collection and analyzing of data for accurate, useful and meaningful information. Some of the techniques used are research design sample size and sampling techniques etc. the researcher presents, and analyses and interprets that data collected from the respondents in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri. The returned research instrument (questionnaire) is group in two sections.
Finally, findings are elaborated and reasonable recommendation aimed at reducing conflict in organization are made. One of the recommendation made which is important if conflict is to be reduced in an organization is that management should move towards more confrontation strategies.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Certification ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract vi
- Table of content vii
- 1.0 Introduction 1
- 1.1 Background of the study 1
- 1.2 Statement of the study 3
- 1.3 Objectives of the study 5
- 1.4 Research questions 5
- 1.5 Statement of hypothesis 6
- 1.6 Significance of the study 6
- 1.7 Scope of the study 7
- 1.8 Limitation of the study 8
- 1.9 Definition of terms 9
- 2.0 Literature review 11
- 2.1 Introduction 11
- 2.2 Meaning and nature of conflict 11
- 2.3 Sources of conflict 15
- 2.4 Types of conflict 27
- 2.5 Manifestation of conflict in organization 32
- 2.6 Techniques for resolving conflict 34
- Reference 44
- 3.0 Research design and methodology 45
- 3.1 Introduction 45
- 3.2 Research design 46
- 3.3 Sources/methods of data collection 47
- 3.4 Population and sample size 48
- 3.5 Sampling techniques 50
- 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring Instrument 50
- 3.7 Method of data analysis 51
- 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 53
- 4.1 Introduction 53
- 4.2 Presentation of data 53
- 4.3 Analysis of data 54
- 4.4 Test of hypothesis 64
- 4.5 Interpretation of results 68
- 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 70
- 5.1 Introduction 70
- 5.2 Summary findings 70
- 5.3 Conclusion ` 71
- 5.4 Recommendation 73
- Reference 75
- Appendix 77
- Questionnaire 78
1.1 Background Of The Study
Since, Federal Polytechnic Nekede are working hand in hand to form a reasonable public sector. They have initiation and substance of peaceful and purposeful labour management relations which involve applying machinery dealing with complaints, grievance and disputes in a public sector.
In Federal Polytechnic Nekede, public sector deals with everything that affects the relationship between workers and employers, perhaps from the time the employee join the work in Federal Polytechnic Nekede is a corporate organisation, therefore in real terms, the institution is the regulation of employment relations by the employers management or their organisation, the workers organization and the third party private and/or government acting as an umpire of a controller, the purpose of which is joint decision making for co-operation of manpower resources for the attainment of organizational objectives of enterprise.
Federal Polytechnic Nekede public sector is the one that include the study of trade unions; management or employers association and the public bodies concerned with the regulation in Federal Polytechnic Nekede have their own power of authority and invested interest. The also have conflict resolution and collective bargaining in solving problems between management and the workers. The organizational union in Federal Polytechnic Nekede is made up of Academic staff Union (ASUP), No Academic staff union (NASU) and senior staff association of Nigeria institution of polytechnic (SSANIP)
The Federal Polytechnic Nekede was initially established as the college of technology, Owerri by edit No. 1 dated 1st April 1987. it was situated at the government technical college (GTC), Owerri premises along Egbu road Owerri. In 1987 it was renamed, the polytechnic Nekede by the Imo State Government.
The institution was taken over in April 1993 by the Federal government of Nigeria and it is now governed by the federal polytechnic Act.
The rector is seen as the chief executive of the institution with other principal officers who are two deputy rectors, the registrar, the bursar and the librarian etc.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
According to Okpara (1984:36) conflict is an inevitable out growth of functional inter-dependent and scarcity of resource modern organisation.
Conflict can not eliminate since Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri is an organisation and is modern organisation, conflict is inevitable in it.
This co-operation is owned by Federal Government where the base of politics reigns, they indulge in constant change of area, and once your own person is no longer in political sit another person takes over your position immediately.
Conflict existing in various offices. The made external and internal problems of organization get unsolved such as:
- – Problem of incompetence person who were place in the name of having God father without knowledge and full experience of the job.
- – Problem of embezzlement of fund, there by creating inadequacy in fund management.
Also, problem of manipulation power and change of area manager which has resulted to recruitment of incompetent person as the areas of manager.
Therefore incompetence is a balmier which stipulate and stimulate conflict in Owerri as a branch
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to examine conflict and its resolution on Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri Territory.
- To examine the causes of these conflict
- To ascertain the effects of conflict in the public sector
- To ascertain how the public sector resolves its conflicts
- Evaluation of the public sector over all conflict resolution strategies with a view a making recommendation.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the procedure for settlement of conflict in a public sector?
- What are the causes of conflict in a public sector?
- What are the effect of conflict in a public sector?.
- What is the essence and objectives of conflict in a public sector?
1.5 Statement Of Hypothesis
As a guiding tool for this research, the following are hypothesis:
- Ho: Conflict resolution does not leads to efficient and effective work productivity
Hi: Conflict resolution leads to efficient and effective work productivity
- Ho: Conflict resolution does not lead to industrial harmony.
Hi: Conflict resolution leads to industrial harmony
1.6 Significance Of Study
This study is significant because it contributes towards finding a solution on conflict in a public sector, if not resolved by successive strategies it may lead to folding up of the public sector or company.
This study will examine the source and problems of conflict faced by most corporations and the need for conflict resolution.
This need will ginger the management in the company to actors which will lead to efficiency of productivity which are objective of the public sector. Also the study will provide the organisation with scientific and useful information which will guide the process of conflict resolution. They study will also for student, lecturer, and research material.
With this work, it findings will aids to the existing body of knowledge in this subject matter and also provide report on further research.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This research work is interested in conflict resolution in an organization it uses Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri as a case public sector or corporation.
This topic is a very sensitive one and not a topic most government employees could like to discuss.
For instance, the human relation officer will never acknowledge such conflict because the believe that conflict is bad.
Since seen, unhealthy, they may be reluctant to give the researcher the necessary information and this behaviour will affect the accuracy of the research.
However, the researcher hope to collect data, through the use of questionnaire and existing literature or text books.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
This research project is being conducted with many either academic demands that are equally important.
The time allocated to project is therefore limited and will definitely affect the scope to be covered.
In addition, there is a problem of finance to move around in order to visit the institution used as a case study. There was also problem of insufficient research materials on the topic, these problems were however adjusted to by the researcher in order to ensure that this research work is a success.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
A disagreement between two or more organisation members or groups due to different goals or status.
b) Public sector:
This is an economic establishment that is set up with the aim of achieving a goal or goals. It could be primarily set up for profit or for other purpose.
c) Work force:
This means employees of a public sector.
d) Top management:
These are those who are responsible for the making of basic policies of a public sector, they also make critical decisions involving a public sector
This is frame work of action or direction of the activities or operation of a public sector
This has to do with official engagements.
g) Conflict Resolution:
Settlement of problem or disagreement between two or more public sector members or groups.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
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You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.