Construction Of Water Level Indicator With Microprocessor Using Seven Segment Display

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Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Dedication


We dedicate this work to all the members of John’s and Egemba’s family.


Acknowledgement


We owe profound gratitude to many who have contributed in any way to bring this work into being.

However, we must mention the key persons whose activities and supports inevitably crystallized into the birth of this work, Mrs. John Ndubunma C. Mrs. Iroanya Chidinma, Mr. Maduforo Gospel I. Miss Ezimmadu Blessing C. Miss Ejike Happiness. Miss John Akudo Vivian.

Mr/Mrs. Godwin Egemba, Mr. Macdonald Egemba, our supervisor Engr. I.N. Onyeje and our Cordinator, Engr. Akwu A.I. Above all, we are thankful to God Almighty who gave us strength in our weakness, made life meaningful to us till this time and gave us wisdom, knowledge and understanding to accomplish this work.


Abstract


Knowing the level of water in a tank or reservoir is very vital especially in cases where failure in water supply can be a very disadvantage.

This therefore necessitates the construction of electronic device which can detect the level of water in a tank and display related information.

The project water level indicator using microprocessor and a segment display is built around a microprocessor chip (INTEL 8051) and other sensory and display devices incorporated.

The display in the project is in alphanumeric example L1, L2, L3, and FL. The chapter one of this project is an introduction to water level indicator, the chapter two is a literature review, the chapter three deals on project construction methodology while chapter four explain the result analysis. Finally the chapter five is the conclusion and recommendation.


Abstract


Knowing the level of water in a tank or reservoir is very vital especially in cases where failure in water supply can be a very disadvantage. This therefore necessitates the construction of electronic device which can detect the level of water in a tank and display related information.

The project water level indicator using microprocessor and a segment display is built around a microprocessor chip (INTEL 8051) and other sensory and display devices incorporated.

The display in the project is in alphanumeric example L1, L2, L3, and FL. The chapter one of this project is an introduction to water level indicator, the chapter two is a literature review, the chapter three deals on project construction methodology while chapter four explain the result analysis.

Finally the chapter five is the conclusion and recommendation.


Table Of Contents


  • Title page i
  • Certification ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgment iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of the project
  • 1.2 Objectives of the project
  • 1.3 Importance of the project
  • 1.4 Applications of the project

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 Seven segment display
  • 2.2 Microcontroller

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Construction of the project
  • 3.1 Components used
  • 3.2 Components description
  • 3.2.0 Transistor
  • 3.2.1 Seven segment display
  • 3.2.2 Capacitor
  • 3.2.3 Electrolytic capacitor
  • 3.2.4 Non Polarized capacitors
  • 3.2.5 Resistor
  • 3.2.6 Crystal oscillator
  • 3.3 Early circuit design
  • 3.4. Circuit description
  • 3.5 Block diagram of the project
  • 3.6 Circuit diagram of the project

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Result and Analysis
  • 4.1 Analysis of the results obtained
  • 4.2 Precautions taken during component laying
  • 4.3 Difficulties encountered

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Project

There are two traditional methods for finding the level of water in a tank:

  1. Tapping down the side of the tank until the sound suddenly changes
  2. Removing the tank cover and dipping in a measuring stick.

The first method is unreliable, while the second method can be awkward and time-consuming. After all, who wants to climb to the top of a tank each time you want to find out how much water is inside it? For a long-life water level sensor, Bob Barnes of RCS Radio suggests that the probe be made out of 19mm plastic conduit fitted with stainless-steel radiator or fuel pump hose-clamps for the sensors

Suitably sleeved nichrome or stainless steel wire (“up the spout”) can then be used to make the connections between the clamps and the resistors. You will need to use Multicore Arax cored solder or Litton Arax cored solder (available from Mitre-10) when soldering nichrome or stainless steel wire (i.e. a corrosive flux is needed).


1.2 Objectives Of The Project

The main objective of this project is to have a device which displays information based on the level of water in a tank or reservoir. It also ensure a stress free situation in the sense that the user can always be relaxed and just look at a display to know the level of water in the tank.

Other apparatus can be attached to the circuit so that it can turn ON a water pump when the tank is empty and turn it OFF when the tank is filled. With this apparatus on ground, one can be sure of regular water supply from the water tank.


1.3 Importance Of The Project

The project, water level indicator is of vast importance with some of them listed below;

  1. It eliminates the stress of climbing a water tank just to determine its water level
  2. It ensures a constant water supply
  3. It can also be so constructed so that one don’t have to always go and turn ON or OFF a water pump
  4. It also indicates the level of water in the tank at all time via the display device

1.4 Applications Of The Project

The project can be used in homes, offices and industries. Wherever it is used, its primary aim is to check the level of water in a tank outside and display information on a digital read out. At homes, the project can be coupled to our water tanks. Here, three probes dipped inside the water determine the level of water and relay information to a microcontroller chip inside the project box.

With this information, output signal is sent via the output ports to a 7-segment display device. The information on this display tells the house owner the level of water in the tank.

The project can also be used in industries where it can be connected to a big reservoir tank from which water is supplied to areas where they are needed. Here, it can be further automated so that a water pump is turned ON whenever the water level is low. With this project, the industry can hardly go short of water as water is continually pumped whenever the level is low.

This material contains electrical diagrams, circuits, illustrations and more (Very detailed)


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

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SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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