An Industrial Smoke Detector With A Microcontroller For Multi-Room Control

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract On Smoke Defector


The design of smoke detector as a device comprises several units such as micro controller (programmable) unit, smoke sensing unit, Heat detecting unit, Alarm unit and power supply unit. The following components are also used in the design resistors, diode, transistor, capacitors, integrated circuit in the form of operation Amplifier and thermistor.

The programmable microcontroller is a central processing unit of the system which received a rectified and stabilised voltage from the power supply unit for effective operation. The power supply unit distributes equal voltage of about +5v dc to all the units. The sensing unit sent their signals to the microcontroller unit which processed the signal and sent it to the alarm unit.

The programmable microcontroller is programmed in such a way that when they system senses an abnormality, the sensor units (smoke and heat) sent the signal to the microcontroller, while the microcontroller issues the audible information or signal to the alarm unit.

The alarm unit will detect the abnormality by raising alarm which helps the occupants to evacuate from the environment and the resident. The sensitivity of the device ranges from 20 seconds to 25 seconds from the period when the detector detected the abnormality.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction of Smoke Detector

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review of Smoke Detector

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Research Methodology
  • 3.2 Block and Circuit Diagram of the System
  • 3.3 Components Description
  • 3.4 Block Diagram Description (Microcontroller)
  • 3.5 The Power Supply Unit

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Circuit Construction and Principles of Operation 25
  • 4.2 Principles of Operation
  • 4.4 Identification of the Abnormal Room from the Microcontroller
  • 4.5 Sensitivity Of The Device
  • 4.6 Problems Encountered and the Remedy

Chapter Five

  • Recommendation and Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction On Smoke Detector

A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial, industrial an mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible and/or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are typically housed in a disk shaped plastic enclosure about 150 millimetres (6in) in diameter and 25 millimeters (1 in) thick, but the shape can vary by manufacturer or product line. Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection (photo electric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase sensitivity to smoke.

Smoke detector in large commercial, industrial and residential buildings are usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is energized by a power with a battery back up. However, in many single family detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered only by a single disposable battery. Some smoke alarms use a carbon dioxide sensor or carbon monoxide sensor in order to detect extremely dangerous products of combustion.

Commercial smoke detectors are either conventional or analogue addressable and are wired up to security monitoring systems or fire Alarm Control Panels (FACP). These are the most common type of detector and usually cost a lot more than a household smoke alarm. They exist in most commercial and industrial facilities such as high rises, ships and trains. Conventional smoke are so called because they are the older type of smoke detectors.

The detector communicates with the fire alarm control panel simply by changing state from high impedance to low impedance when smoke is detected. Smoke detectors are typically wired together up to 40 detectors on each zone of loop and a single fire alarm control panel can usually monitor a number of zones or loops which can be arranged to correspond to different areas of a building. In the event of fire, the fire alarm control panel is able to identify which loop contains the detectors or detectors in alarm but its not able to identify which individual detector or detectors is in an alarm state.

Large, wide area indoor spaces present a challenge to traditional fire safety systems in order to effectively detect smoke over such a space, complex networks of multiple overlapping sensors will be required. Optical beam smoke detectors on the other hand are designed exactly for such situations – one single unit installed on a wall can detect smoke over an area of up to 1500m2 or 19800 sq ft. More coverage per detector means fewer detectors, with associated reductions to the time and cost of installation and wiring as well as lesser aesthetic intrusion.

There is already a lively debate about the relative merits and drawbacks of different detection systems. A common theme is that bean detector may not be as reliable or trouble free as other methods, however this is almost always to in correct installation.

Beams in fact, can be much more suitable for some situations than other detection systems, and this article will explain how to get the best from beams.


Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendation And Conclusion

Summary

Smoke detector is a very sensitive and intelligent device which service on the purpose of safety when there is a rise in abnormality in an industry or resident to alert the occupant to evacuate the environment before fire hazard. It can use alarm as the means of indication or visually programme.


Recommendations

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) strongly recommends the replacement of home smoke alarms every 10 years. Smoke alarms become less reliable with time, primarily due to aging of their electronic components, making them susceptible to nuisance false alarms. In ionization type alarms, decay of the AM radioactive source is a legible factor, as its half – life is far greater than the expected useful life of the alarm unit.

It is seriously recommended that smoke detectors should be integrated in different parts of a house such as the bedroom, the kitchen or outside the house. Of course, you should carefully select the areas appropriate to fit in your smoke detectors. Some areas like a fire place can cause false fire alarms so it is wise that you place those first detectors in the right place.


Conclusion

A body called NWT in the year 2004 issued a comprehensive report which concludes among other things that smoke alarms of either the ionization type or the photo electric type consistently provided time for occupants to escape from most residential fires, and consists with prior findings, ionization type alarms provided somewhat better response to flaming fires than photoelectric alarms and photo electric alarms provided (often) considerably faster response to smouldering fires than ionization type alarms.

Furthermore, while smoke detector helps in sensing smoke and firs hazard make certain that you alert all the people in your home, from your kids to the elderly, even your pets. Safety is always key and smoke detector are designed in a way to prepare your loved ones for possible evacuation that is sae and quick. You might be tempted to salvage some of your belonging but always guarantee the safety of your families as well as yourself.

To be more on the safety of your families as well as yourself. To be more on the safe side, employ the service of an expert to inspect your house of any potential fire hazards that can occur. Make sure that you have smoke detectors on hand and check them every month. The maximum life span of a smoke detector can take eight to then years but if it is not currently working it is time to replace them.


An Industrial Smoke Detector With A Microcontroller For Multi-Room Control


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