Design And Construction Of An Automatic Battery Charger ABC

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Design And Construction Of An Automatic Battery Charger ABC


Abstract


The practical importance of a battery charging unit in today’s world cannot be over emphasized. This is so since these batteries or accumulators are immensely needed by automobiles and in science laboratories. This thesis describes the methodical approach to the design and construction of any battery changer. However the procedure developed cover the construction of battery charger for battery sizes ranging from 6 volts to 12 volts.

The phototype of a battery charger for these ranges of battery has been implemented following the methodical approach as outlined in this thesis and its operational test results are quite satisfactory.

Adequate care has been taken in the design and construction to ensure that the resultant battery charger is both reliable and easy to use.


Chapter One


Introduction

A battery charge is an electrical device employed in charging batteries. The batteries that are usually charged by battery chargers are the storage batteries also known as “accumulators”.

The charger is made up of various Electrical and Electronic component, which for the purpose of clarity are grouped with four basic unit;
They are;

  • The power supply unit
  • The smoothing circuit
  • The regulatory unit and
  • The regulated D.C charging unit

Battery chargers comes in various designs and voltage. The choice of a particular kind of charger that depends largely on the size of battery or batteries which one intends to charge. The miniature battery charger could be needed to charge batteries whose voltage ranges from 6-12 volts. The bigger battery chargers are for batteries with voltage ranging 12 – 48 volts. These are the heavy duty batteries.

The battery charger is built in such a way that it delivers a constant value of d.c current into the battery it is charging is the opposite direction from which current flows on the batteries during discharge. One cannot successfully design a battery charger without fundamental understanding of the accumulator because it also makes up the operation. Thus chapter two aimed at a brief study of the accumulator (accumulator). Chapter three deals with the power supply unit, which senses as the backbone of the battery charger and how the automated cut off is achieved. Chapter four full analysis’s the operation of a battery charger and its casing while chapter five which happen to be the last chapter aimed at concluding and summarizing what has been achieved at the and of the project.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Suggestion for Further Improvement

5.1 Summary

Having carefully selected all the components that are required for the construction of the charge and built according to the circuit diagram. We will be able to design and construct a workable battery charger.
As previously mentioned, it was not designed for battery whose e.em.f is beyond 12 volts. Other wise the charger output voltage will not be sufficient to carry out any meaningful charging operation. As with any charger, it must not be housed. In a room not well ventilated, as it will cause heavy gaseous circulation within the room. This might endanger the health of the operator as those gas that are highly inflammable.


5.2 Conclusion

In the implementation of this project, what has proved most difficult is the selection of the right value of components. Some were using two diode (thermonic value in order to have a perfect full wave rectification, I have made use of four diodes and at the end a functionable portable battery charger is been designed and constructed.

The charger is very simple to use, even to a layman all he needs is just a little instruction and he will be accustomed to its method of working.

There is still further improvement demanded from me mostly in the area of building a more complex and functionable charger that could charge cells of higher voltage that might range to 48 volts and to be able to charge more than two or three batteries at the same time, having more than one decimal.

No double, the design and construction of this portable charger has trilled me in order to make things work. Infact, this actually preferred me to taken even challenges to this kind of coincidence and commitment.

Due to the possibility of this, it has surely but smiles on the face of most people like some motorist who has long been finding it difficult charging their own batteries at their homes and at their convenient time.


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