Design And Construction Of A 12 Volts Automatic Car Battery Charger With Full Voltage Cutout

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Design And Construction Of A 12 Volts Automatic Car Battery Charger With Full Voltage Cutout


Abstract


A battery charger is an electrical device employed for charging batteries. These batteries that are usually charged by battery charger are the storage batteries also known as “accumulator” the battery charger changes. The alternating current forms the power line into d.c suitable for charging.

When the battery is fully changed, is up to it’s maximum, 12 volt, the charger with automatically stop changing with the help of the contact relay, the transistor and the zener diode when bend the current back to the system, and the system have the ability to indicate when the battery is charging or not, when the battery is empty or fully charged.


Table of Content


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Hypothesis/Research Questions
  • 1.4 Objective of Study
  • 1.5 Significance of Study
  • 1.6 Scope of Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of Study
  • 1.8 Definitions of terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Review of Related works
  • 2.2 Contribution to Knowledge
  • 2.3 Proposed system’s Theories
  • 2.4 Expected Results from Hardware &Software

Chapter Three

Design Methodology

  • 3.1 The Block Diagram of a Battery Charger
  • 3.2 System Circuit
  • 3.3 System Operation
  • 3.4 Circuit Description

Chapter Four

Results / Analysis

  • 4.1 Construction Procedure And Testing Analysis
  • 4.2 Casing And Packaging
  • 4.3 Assembling Of Sections
  • 4.4 Tests an Operation
  • 4.5 Battery Charger Casing

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

A battery charger is described as is a device that provides electricity to convert into stored chemical energy for storage in an electrochemical cell by running an electric current through it. [Zhang et al, 2013].

A battery charger consists of a rectifier circuit, power circuit, ripple monitoring, control circuit, regulator circuit.
A Battery charger comes in various designs and voltage. The choice of a particular charger depends largely on the size of battery. Mini battery charger could be used to charge batteries whose voltage is 12 volts.

The battery charge is built in such a way that it delivers a constant value of d.c current into the battery it is charging in the opposite direction from which current flows on the batteries during discharge one cannot successfully design a battery charge without a fundamental understanding of the accumulator because it also makes up the operation according to [Zhang et al, 2013].

This work is aimed at building an automatic battery charger which comprises of overcharge cut – off feature.


1.1 Problem Statement

There is nothing that is as frustrating and dangerous as when a battery is plugged and at the end it was discovered that the battery did not charge. And nothing is as dangerous as when a battery was fully charged and the owner is not aware of the charging state. This study solve problems such as not knowing when a battery is charging and when it is fully charged which can cause the battery not to charged or to over-charge.

The battery charge is built in such a way that it delivers a constant value of d.c current into the battery it is charging in the opposite direction from which current flows on the batteries during discharge one cannot successfully design a battery charge without a fundamental understanding of the accumulator because it also makes up the operation.


1.2 Aim and Objective of Study

The main aim of this work is to build an automatic battery charger which comprises of indicators that indicates charging process and charging level indicator.

The objectives are:

  1. To build the device
  2. To know when a battery is charging or not
  3. To know the status of a battery thereby saving the battery from over-charge

1.3 Significance of Study

Carrying this work will go along way teaching students how battery charger is been made and the operation of battery charger. This study will also be of great benefit to all users of charger and rechargeable devices in that it will help them to understand how their battery is been charged and how chargers are operated.


1.4 Scope of Study

The scope of this work focuses on the building of a 12v battery that incorporated overcharge cut-off relay. In this work, a voltage sensor circuit is incorporated to sense the voltage of the battery under charge. The charger has the ability to automatically switch OFF when the battery voltage reaches the required optimum level with the help of the contact relay, the transistor and the zener diode.


1.5 Limitations of Study

This charger can only be used for 12v batteries. The final packaging of the device will compose of two LEDs which includes LED for power, and overcharge cut-off LED.


1.6 Definitions of Terms

Below are terms that are frequently used in this work and their definitions:

Battery

A container consisting of one or more cells, in which chemical energy is converted into electricity and used as a source of power.

Charger

A device for charging a battery or battery-powered equipment.

Capacitor

A charge storage device made up of two metallic plates separated by a dielectric, with equal but opposite charges. The AC impedance of a Capacitor is (1 / jWL) and acts as an open circuit in DC applications.

Circuit

A complete path that allows electrical current from one terminal of a voltage source to the other terminal.

Alternating (AC) Current

Currents that have a harmonic time dependence.

Ampere (A)

The unit of measurement for electrical current in coulombs per second.


Chapter Five


Summary

Having carefully selected the entire component that are required for the construction of the charger and built according to the circuit diagram we were able to design and construct a workable battery charger.

This charger is not designed for battery whose emf is beyond 12 volts; otherwise the charge output voltage will not be sufficient to carry out any meaniful charging operation.

As with any charger it must be housed in a clean environment and operations should be by will trained individual.
Protective materials should be worn while charging batteries to avoid danger to health as a result of the gassing from the battery as the gas are highly inflammable.


5.3 Conclusion / Suggestion for Further Improvement

In the implementation of this project what has proved most difficulties is the selection of the right value of components some were using two diode (the maraine value), in order to have a perfect full wave rectification, we made use of four diodes and the and a functional portable battery is been designed and constructed.

The charger is very single to use, ever to a Longman all he needs is just a little instruction and it will be accustomed to its method of working.

There is still further improvement demanded from use, mostly in the area of building a work complex and functions charger that could charge cells of higher voltage that might ranges to 48 volts and be able to charge move that two or three battery at the sometimes having more that one terminal.

No doubt, the design and construction of this portable charger. Gas thrilled us in order to make things works. In fact, this actually performed us to take even challenges to this kind of coincidence and commitment.

Due to the possibility of this, it has surely put smiles on the face of most people like some motorist who has long been finding it difficult charging there own batteries at their homes and at their convenient time.


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