Laod Flow Analysis Of A Four Bus Network Using Newton Raphson’s Method With NEPLAN Power System Analysis Software

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Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


We dedicate this project to God Almighty for his numerous favors, guidance and protection. We also ascribe our dedication to our lovely parents MR & MRS M.S.C ODIAKOSE and MR. FRANCIS OBIANERI and . Finally, to all our good friends and lovers of knowledge and truth.


Load flow is the steady state solution of a power system. The necessary information obtained from load flow is active and reactive power flow along the transmission lines as well as Voltage magnitude and phase angle at different buses of the network.

In this project, we have carried out load flow studies on a four bus grid network using Newton Raphson’s method of load flow studies.

The aim of this project was to ensure that no system overload occur in the power system when both generation and loads are varied.

The simulation software used is NEPLAN power system analysis software.


We wish to thank our able project supervisor Engr. M. SUNDAY for the generous way in which he gave us the inspiration and guidance through out the course of this project and the entire staff of the department for their assistance all this time particularly Mr. U. S Osundu my lecturer, and the head of department Engr. Charles Okoronkwo.

We are also grateful to our able parents for their financial support and encouragement rendered to us up to this standard especially, through out our years of stay in this institution.

Above all, thanks to God Almighty the creator who against all odds made us to succeed.

Table Of Contents

  • Contents Pages
  • Title pages
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0.0 Introduction
  • 1.0.1 Neplan power system analysis software
  • 1.2.0 Literature review

Chapter Two

  • 2.0.0 Modeling of Transmission line
  • 2.0.1 Short transmission line
  • 2 .0.2 Medium transmission line
  • 2.0.3 Representation of transmission line
  • 2.0.4 Long transmission line
  • 2.1.0 Transformer modeling
  • 2.1.3 Tap Changing Transformer
  • 2.1.3 Phase Shifting Transformer
  • 2.1.3 Synchronous Motor Modeling

Chapter Three

  • 3.0.0 Newton Raphson load flow technique
  • 3.0.1 Bus classification
  • 3.0.2 Bus admittance matrix
  • 3.0.3 Jacobian matrix
  • 3.0.5 Power system simulation data
  • 3.1.5 Transmission line data
  • 3.2.5 Types of tower design
  • 3.3.5 Single circuit tower design
  • 3.4.5 Double circuit tower design
  • 3.1.0 Types of conductor
  • 3.1.2 Standard transmission system impedance
  • 3.1.3 Load data
  • 3.1.4 Generator data

Chapter Four

  • 4.0.0 Simulation and Result
  • 4.1.0 Load Flow simulation result
  • 4.2.0 Load Flow analysis

Chapter Five

  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One

1.0.0. Introduction

In a 3-phase Ac power system, active and reactive power flow from the generating station to the load through different network buses and branches. The flow of active and reactive power is called the power or load flow.

The bus voltages are affected by the reactive power flow due to the coupling between the two of them. Power flow studies provide a systematic mathematical approach for determination of various bus voltages, their phase angle, active and reactive power flows through different branches, generators and load under steady and unsteady state conditions for adjustments where necessary.

In the last chapter, we shall see how NEPLAN software is used to simulate the reactive and active power in the 330KV on a four bus network.

1.0.1 NEPLAN Power System Analysis Software

NEPLAN is educational software that can be used for any kind of power system analysis, such as solving load flow problems.

This can be achieved through the following techniques:

  • Gauss – Seidel techniques
  • Newton – Raphson’s Techniques
  • Fast decouple techniques

1.2.0 Literature Review And Historical Development

Load flow study in power system parlance is the steady state solution of the system network.

The power system is usually modeled as an electric network and solution for steady state power and voltage at various buses. The load are given in terms of complex power rather than impedances, the generators behave more like power source than voltage source and as a result of this factors, direct analysis of the circuit is not possible.

The main information obtained from load flow steadies comprises the magnitude and phase angle of load bus voltage, real and reactive power flows on transmission lines and the power at reference bus, other variable being specified. Load flow calculation is the most frequently performed in power system planning, operational planning and operation control and are increasingly being used to solve very large system for purposes such as outage security assessment, transmission line loss minimizing, continuous monitoring of the system, economic dispatch problem and others.

A review of load flow calculation has been presented by B.stott (1929, in his book titled” effective starting process for Newton Raphson”). Prior to 1930, all power flow calculations were made by hand. Between 1930 and 1956, network calculations. These devices are miniature models of the network be studied. The behavior of the system is determined by measuring the electrical quantities in the model.

J.B ward and H.W. Hale, (in 1956, in book titled “Digital computer solution of power flow problems”), described the first real computer program for solving power flow problem Gauss Seidel algorithm for the solution of linear equations that descried an electrical network. Since the network equations are quadratic, an interactive procedure is required. Because of the nature of parameters in power system networks, a solution is usually obtained.

The Gauss Seidel method encountered greater difficultly in arriving at a solution for large networks, since the effect in adjusting the bus voltage during iterations is reflected only to the buses that are the immediate neighboring buses, several iterations are required for adjustment may be made and the number of iterations increased dramatically for an actually workable system. Other methods includes Bonneville power administration (1963, which used “Newton method of load flow problems”) was the first to develop a very successful method of load flow calculations.

This method uses the Newton Raphson’s algorithm to solve the simultaneous quadratic equations that describe the power system. In this method, the number iterations required to obtain a solution is practically independent of the size of the system. Many problems that could not be solved with Gauss Seidel method, for instance, systems with negative impendence were successfully solved by the Newton Raphson’s method.

The Newton Rephson’s methods, if the starting values of voltage profit are not judiciously chosen, early power flow programs used one iteration of the Gauss Seidel method before beginning the Newton Raphson procedure. This process was found to the ill-advised because the Gauss Seidel algorithm usually distorts the voltage profile on the first few iterations and causes some buses of the system to be far away from the solution them is the original estimate. The addition, the restriction of non negative impedances imposed on the gauss method unnecessarily limits the Newton method.

The Newton Raphson method of solution of power flow problem was described by van ness, the technique produced a solution in very little iteration. It is a computer memory for the storage of the Jacobian matrix. Due to the ability of the Newton Raphson method to solve difficult problems and speed advantage, the Bonneville power administration group replaced their power program with the Newton Raphson method in production work, they noticed that the Newton method is slower than Gauss method and requiring a great deal of memory.

They concluded that the difficult was not with the Newton algorithm but the ordering of the equation in the elimination procedure. The solution to this problem was not solved, it still exceeded that of the Gauss Seidel method but the speed and stability of solution justified the conversion of the method.

One important characteristics of the power system is that the real power is mostly dependent on the voltage angles at different buses while the reactive power is highly dependent on the voltage magnitude. Due to these factors, the fast decoupled technique took the advantages of the weak coupling between the reactive power and the voltage magnitude, and also between the real power and the voltage angle.

Other assumptions which are also valid in power system operation were also made in order to simplify the power flow problem.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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