Design And Construction Of Frequency Modulation (FM) Receiver

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


Broadcast band frequency modulation (FM) receiver came into existence as a substitute and alternate to amplitude modulation (AM) broadcast band which has the problems of noise and fidelity. Although the title alludes to simplicity, the design and construction of this project FM Receiver is not uniformly simple.

The designs generally have a considerable component counts. However, the construction of this project is a bit far from simple.

This write-up is a composite of five chapters fully developed to provide an overall knowledge of the concept termed “frequency modulation (FM) Receivers”.

Chapter one is the introductory part which explains the meaning and concept of FM receiver.

Chapter two is the literature review.

Chapter three is the main body of the write up which explains the nature principles and working of the individual stage involve in the circuit of the FM receiver constructed.

Finally chapter fiver is the conclusion and recommendation drawn from the overall analysis of the write-up.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Knowledge
  • 1.2 Modulation
  • 1.3 Need for modulation
  • 1.4 Frequency modulation (FM)
  • 1.5 Demodulation
  • 1.6 Aims of the Project

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Historical Review
  • 2.2 Autodyne and Superheterodyn Receiver
  • 2.3 Digital Technologies
  • 2.4 Types of receivers

Chapter Three

3.0 Research and Design Methodology

  • 3.1 Research method
  • 3.2 Design Techniques
  • 3.3 Principle of FM detection
  • 3.4 Circuit Design Description
  • 3.5 Working of the circuit
  • 3.6 Materials employed
  • 3.7 Project construction
  • 3.8 How the Receiver Work
  • 3.9 Explanations

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Analysis

  • 4.1 Analysis
  • 4.1 Mathematically expression of FM Wave
  • 4.2 Circuit Analysis
  • 4.3 Testing Analysis
  • 4.4 Advantages of FM over AM
  • 4.5 Comparison between FM and AM

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Knowledge

Receiver is generally an electronic equipment that accepts, transforms and outputs an enveloped signal into a form that could be noticeable and meaningful to human senses. A radio receiver is therefore the one that will output an audible sound signal for human usage. A radio receiver must perform a number of functions.

First, it must radio signals. It will then amplify the wanted signal to a usable level. Finally, the receiver must recover the information signal from the radio carrier and pass it on to the user via a speaker. Hence an FM receiver is a receiver that decodes a required frequency modulated (FM) radio signal from among group of signal.

The essential process involve in FM receiver operation is demodulation or detection of an already frequency modulated signal. FM receiver employ a special detector for FM signals and exhibit a phenomenon called capture effect, where the tuner is able to clear and receive the stronger of two stations being broadcast on the same frequency. As a common problem, frequency drift or lack of selectivity may cause one station or signal to be suddenly overtaken by another on adjacent channel selectivity.

Compared to AM receiver, FM receiver has some advantages. The signal-to-noise ratio can be increased without increasing transmitted power rather at the expense of an increase in frequency bandwidth required; interference are more easily suppressed and modulation process can take place at low –level power stage in the transmitter, thus avoiding the need for large amounts of modulating power.


1.2 Modulation

This is the process of combining an audio frequency (AF) signal or the modulating wave with a radio frequency (RF) carrier wave. The resultant wave produced is called modulated wave. During this process some characteristic of the carrier wave is made to vary in time with the modulating signal and is accomplished by combining the RF and AF signals.


1.3 Need For Modulation

If modulation techniques were not used, it would not be possible to have more than one radio or TV stations operating in the same area. This is because there would be no way of distinguishing between them at the receiver. With modulating however, each station can be allotted a specific earlier frequency with a surrounding frequency band or channel, and by tuning the receiver to a particular carrier frequency that broadcast can be chosen to the exclusion of nearly all other broadcast and interference in general. Hence, the complete radio frequency spectrum from low frequencies, LF to ultra high frequencies UHF (ie. From 10kHz to 1GH) can accommodate over 50,000 am channels or 5000 FM channels even without duplication.


1.4 Frequency Modulation (FM)

As implied by the name, this is the type of modulation in which only the frequency of the carrier wave is changed rather than the amplitude or any other parameter. The amount of charge in frequency is determined by the amplitude of the modulating signal whereas the rated change is determined by the frequency of the modulating signal. This can be illustrated diagrammatically

FREQUENCY MODULATION

From the diagram, the information or intelligent in the F.M carrier is carried as variations in frequency, the frequency of the modulated carrier increases as the signal amplitude increases but decreases as the signal amplitude decreases.


1.5 Demodulation

After modulation and radiation of signals form the transmitting antenna, the RF modulated wave travel through the space and strikes the receiving antenna. They will induce very weak RF current s and voltage in them . These high frequency currents when passed through headphone or loudspeakers will not produce effect on human because their frequencies are beyond the audible frequencies of 20 to 20,000Hz. It is therefore necessary current seminar to the one use in modulating the carrier wave is known as demodulation.


1.6 Aim Of The Project

The objective of the work among others includes

  1. To design and construct an FM radio receiver
  2. To understand the underling principle of FM demodulation.
  3. To provide adequate knowledge of signal reception which is an important process in telecommunication.
  4. To put into practice, the practical and theoretical skill acquired in circuit and components designed and analysis.

Chapter Five


Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

From the foregoing, we have gathered that an FM receiver receives a frequency modulated signal and decode the audio signal which is outputted via a loud speaker. Although, an Fm radio receiver is more complex in construction than the AM, but it has a number of advantages over AM radio receiver. Hence, it is most widely use by consumers in recent days. FM receiver in its application is not limited to radio broadcast; it can be employed in other telecommunication system.

Finally the aim of the project design and construction was achieved, as it widened the horizon of our knowledge in telecommunication and our prior knowledge was put into work. That is now an FM receiver in presentation.


5.2 Recommendation

Due to high signal-to-noise ratio and high fidelity accrued to FM receiver, we are recommending it in continuous use for human listening pleasure of FM stations.

We recommend that research should be deepened in developing an FM receiver which would have a lesser component count than its counterpart AM receiver. Also to increase the distance for FM reception.


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