Design And Construction Of A Metal Detector

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


The project work titled Design and construction of a metal detector. When fully design and implemented would be able to detect any metallic material that is passing or coming close. This function would serve as a security check for dangerous metallic material as an alarm. Going by the sophisticated means of armed rubbers adopt these days in the breaking into bank supermarkets offices and highly secured area. No security system will be optimized or complete without the installation of metal detector.

This will stop or reduce to the bearest minimum the activities of men of the underworld. The device we then build we function as a metal detector that can scout out metal objects, such as coins, nails, keys such as car keys you may not be able to fine, and even gold if you’re looking for it in a beach (through this one may not have industrial strenght). This metal detector can detect certain kinds of metal- especially iron –containing metals, which are called ferrous meat, even if under a half-inch of drywell or sand.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content
  • List of Figures

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Objective of the Project
  • 1.4 Significant of the Project
  • 1.5 Methodology
  • 1.6 Scope of the Project
  • 1.7 Project Outline

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 What a Metal Detector Is
  • 2.1.1 Brief History of Metal Detector Evolution
  • 2.2 Types of Metal Detectors Available
  • 2.2.1 Pulse Induction (PI) Metal Detector
  • 2.2.2 Industrial Metal (IM) Detector
  • 2.2.2.1 Basic operation of an IM Detector
  • 2.2.3 Coin/Treasure Metal Detector
  • 2.3 Uses of Metal detectors
  • 2.4 Principles Applied in the Project
  • 2.4.1 Magnetism
  • 2.4.1.1 Paramagnetism
  • 2.4.1.2 Ferromagnetism
  • 2.4.1.3 Diamagnetism
  • 2.4.1.4 Antiferromagnetism
  • 2.4.1.5 Ferrimagnetism
  • 2.4.1.6 Superparamagnetism
  • 2.4.1.7 Electromagnet
  • 2.5 Electromagnetism
  • 2.6 Brief Description of the Electronic Components Used
  • 2.6.1 Resistor
  • 2.6.2 Inductors
  • 2.6.3 Capacitors
  • 2.6.4 Transistors
  • 2.6.5 TDA0161

Chapter Three

Research Design

  • 3.1 Design of a Metal Detector Circuit
  • 3.2 How this Metal Detector Works
  • 3.3 Component Use for Design
  • 3.4 Metal Detector Schematic
  • 3.5 Explanation of Circuit
  • 3.6 TDA0161 Proximity Detector IC
  • 3.7 Resistor R1 and Potentiometer R2
  • 3.8 How to Use Metal Detector
  • 3.9 Power Supply Uni
  • 3.10 Principle of Operation of the Metal Detector
  • 3.11 Calculations Involving Choice of Component and their Functions

Chapter Four:

System Implementation

  • 4.1 Testing
  • 4.2 Performance Evaluation
  • 4.3 Project Packaging
  • 4.4 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation

Chapter Five:

Summary And Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary of Achievements
  • 5.2 Problems Encountered and Solutions Adopted
  • 5.3 Contribution to Knowledge
  • 5.4 Suggestions for Further Improvement
  • 5.6 Recommendation
  • 5.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendix

List Of Figures


  • Fig 2.0: Magnetic domains in ferromagnetic material
  • Fig 2.1: Effect of a magnet on the domains
  • Fig 2.2: Antiferromagnetic ordering
  • Fig 2.3: Ferromagnetic ordering
  • Fig. 2.4: A simple demonstration of Electromagnetism Field

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

It has been observed that the rapid growth in the technological knowledge across the world has been accompanied by a rapid rise in crime rate. These criminal acts takes the form of breaking of private and official homes and making away with a huge sum of money, valuable and in most cases hosts of lives. The background of this project work comes into play for the removal or minimization of the above criminal act by a way of a METAL DETECTOR, which will be handly or connected to a strategic position in our homes and offices.

Detection and clearance are still very often carried out in humanitarian demining ways using manual methods or computer as primary procedure. When operating in this way, detection phase still relies heavily on metal detectors, whereby, each alarm needs to be carefully checked until it has been fully understood or its source removed. This is normally done visually and prodding or excavating the ground. Metal detectors are probably going to remain in use for some time.


1.2 Problem Statement

Going by the sophisticated means armed robbers adopt these days in breaking into banks, super markets and highly secured areas or the activities of assassins in conference hall, airport, hospital e.g. there are every indication that they are out for the worst and a better way of lessening the harshness of these menace is to get highly alerted security wise. No security system will be optimized or complete without the installation of metal detector. This will stop or reduce barest minimum, the cases of men of the underworld breaking into banks, hotels, conference hall, homes, hospital e.t.c systematically undetected.

The exigency of Metal detector involvement in security outfits whether national, sub-national and domestic level cannot be over emphasized.

The researcher was motivated to design a project which will demonstrate the undisputable wide use of transistors in field of electronics to produce the kind of sound that should be able to alert people for special attention, and serves as a danger signal in a nutshell.


1.3 Objective of the Project

  • To construct a walk through metal detector that is capable of detecting the presence of a metallic device.
  • To the walk through metal detector world also incorporate the functionality of metallic object.

The walk through metal detector will be capable of producing an alarm on reception of a metallic object.


1.4 Significant of the Project

The significant of this project is to construct a functional electronic detector security system, which will be beneficial technology to human beings. This project will also bring technology nearer home especially to the student, and to me as the designer, and the contribution in the advancement of technology, thus helping them to assemble, design and construct projects based on simple component and material locally or foreign.

Again, this project will encourage indigenous technology and discourage the large expense being made on foreign security systems. All these were born in mind during the assembling, designing construction and casing of this project.


1.5 Methodology

This system is developed using several electrical and electronic principles. The principle of electromagnetism is a major principle applied. When the coil which serves as the sensor is placed over a metal and the system is switched ON, the electric current passing through the coil makes it magnetic and being placed over a metal, the metal generates a very small voltage (in micro volts) in form of eddy currents. This generated eddy current is received by the sensors and thus it causes a disturbance to the main current flow. The difference is harnessed by electronics and connected to an amplifier from where it is fed into the audio output which serves as the transducer to the system.


1.6 Scope of the Project

The metal detector designed in this project will make use of technology called Beat Frequency Oscillator (B.F.O). this technology employs two oscillators at resonance and a variation of the frequency of oscillation of one of the oscillators due to the presence of a metallic object would be picked up by a tiny receiver within the control box which creates an audible series of tones (beats) based on the difference between the frequencies.


1.7 Project Outline

  • The first chapter of this project write up gives an introduction to the work intended. It discusses a short background of the project work. The specific objectives of the project are also clearly stated. The problem the system is to solve and its significance is also highlighted. The scope of the work is stated here in terms of the parameters to be achieved in the design.
  • The second chapter of this write up reviews the related literature of the work. It gives basic insight as to principle of operation of the system. It also reviews past design in this field and the results obtained.
  • The third chapter show cases the design methodology and on the explanation of each method employed.
  • The fourth discusses the actual design of the work. The analysis, assumptions an mathematical models involved in achieving a complete system design is discussed.
  • The chapter five deals on the procedures observed in the coupling of the different designs and modules of the work. Also the result of the finished project after test and evaluation and conclusion made are stated.
  • The last chapter contains the conclusion and recommendations made. It also contains the Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME).

Chapter Five


Summary and Conclusion

5.1 Summary of Achievements

As I browsed the internet for materials, I discovered that most readily available metal detectors are very expensive and cannot be afforded by especially people that need them. This design however is a low cost readily affordable metal detector and can easily be procured by whoever may need it. The system is also very rugged and reliable.

More so, the resulting design is easy to carry and meets with the standard of what is available in the international market. The system can also be used in teaching younger undergraduates about the principles of electromagnetism and one of its specific application (that is, Metal detection).

In the implementation of this work, a combination of bottom-up and top down design approach was used. A number of subsystems were designed, implemented and integrated to achieve the final result. These include the power supply, analogue to digital conversion, the seven segment display.

The beauty of this work is that every part of the system is working perfectly as expected and this means achieving our dream of producing a metal detector with inbuilt programmer locally. The detector is highly design and function effectively it makes the learning easy.

Furthermore this project has more features than any one available in the market today and this attests to the fact that we can produce things that are much better than those produced overseas.


5.2 Problems Encountered and Solutions Adopted

In the cause of the development this project work, a few problems were encountered. The problems we encountered and how we solved them areoutlined in Table 5.1 below:

Table 5.1 Problems encountered in the cause of the project and solutions

Problems encountered in the cause of the project and solutions

Achieving this work was not on a platter of gold. First it involved a lot of research work, design and programming.

The challenges encountered includes

  1. Sourcing of material
  2. Producing the printed circuit board locally
  3. Sourcing for the component
  4. Challenges of construction and Fabrication
  5. Short circuit in the course of soldering
  6. Getting the programmer to work
  7. Designing the package
  8. Interruption of power

However, measures were taken to mitigate the challenges which include the following.

  1. To mitigate the first challenge, we had to go to Onitsha, Abuja and Port Harcourt even Lagos to get the component and some materials which took us a long time. also going from one place to another looking for a reliable source
  2. Procuring for more reliable person component such as bread board copper wire etc.
  3. De-solding pump and scrapper were used to control short circuit.
  4. Test was done painstakingly to have the programmer work.
  5. The service was engaged in the packaging.

5.3 Contribution to Knowledge

This work is a contribution to the development of indigenous technology as the product can be further developed and sold both within and outside the country. Also the use of this work by students and researchers will expose them to different challenges in solving a security issues in the country. Metal detector and its application is a product develop in order to achieve our security challenges.


5.4 Suggestions for Further Improvement

The following suggestions will greatly improve the development of this system if they are taking into consideration.

  1. This present design should serve as a stepping stone for a more intense into metal detection system. It should not in anyway be seen as the end of this aspect of technology.
  2. I encourage government to sponsor researches in this area to help researcher achieve deeper and better results and help in boosting our indigenous technologies.
  3. The departmental libraries, laboratories and virtual reality centres should be better equipped with modern and sophisticated equipment to enable students carry out more effective researches in this area of study.
  4. As we know security is one of the most important need of our nation nowadays, and available security system are very costly to import, but we can develop our indigenous security systems if the Government can support research like this and also related researches.
  5. The use of PCB technology instead of a Vero board will greatly reduce the size, and make it neater and reduce the cost of production.

Despite the successes recorded in this work, there are still lots of room for improvement. Below are some recommendations in subsequent works.

  1. There should be provision for plugging the programmer into a USB port of a computer.
  2. Multiple layer PCB should be used to make working with PCB easy.
  3. Care should be taken to incorporate all possible devices that can be interfaced and incorporated in order to achieve this project metal detector.

5.6 Recommendation

I wish to recommend that this work be used extensively in the laboratory to teach students some equipment and how to use some of the electrical component and to know the use of this significant project that was carry out in order to solve a vital problem that had been an issue in the society. This project is not recommended in the university only, it can also be use in the offices, hospital, banks, supermarket, and highly secure places in order to control some security challenges faces the country today.

This work can also be mass produced and sold to relevant institutions to make money.

We recommend that this system should be incorporated into many locally available security systems; this will make them more sophisticated and affordable. More so, metal detectors can be incorporated into doors and windows to design automatic security systems.


5.5 Conclusions

The importance of metal detectors cannot be over emphasized as the security issues in our times need all the possible security gadgets possible to be able to match these security threat and breaches. Therefore the development of the prototype of metal detectors is very timely and should be massed produced as one of our indigenous security products.

A strong understanding of the intricacies of the metal detector and its application is fundamental to the digital evolution of this century. It is the roadmap to the technological innovation of today, therefore the proliferation of the knowledge of metal detector and its practical application as well as making training kit of this sort to students and researchers is a necessity in our quest for technological growth, attainment of vision 2020 and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals one and two.


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