Design And Construction Of An Uninterrupted Power System (UPS)

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


This uninterruptible power supplies device has the capability of converting from 12volts D.C to 220volts alternating current at the frequency of 50Hz with the help of a step-up transformer. The main importance of this device is its ability to ensure absolute continuity of power to the computerized control system thereby protecting a critical equipment from electrical supply failure. Ups system achieve this by rectifying the mains supply, using the direct current to charge the standby battery and to produce a “clean” alternating current by passing through an inverter and filter system. The output produced is free of sags of services in the line voltage, frequency variation, spikes and transients.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Project Objective

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review


Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Design Analysis
  • 3.2 Circuit Diagram
  • 3.3 Block Diagram
  • 3.4 Trickle Charging
  • 3.5 Automatic Function

Chapter Four

4.0 Principle of Operation

  • 4.1 Modes of Operation of UPS System
  • 4.2 The DC Source
  • 4.3 Automatic Control System
  • 4.4 Transformers

Chapter Five

5.0 Construction, Testing / System Evaluation

  • 5.1 Packaging
  • 5.2 Maintenance

Chapter Six

6.0 Conclusion/Recommendation

  • 6.1 Costing
  • 6.2 Bibliography

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

A DC-AC Inverter is basically a device which converts direct to a sinusoidal current. There are different ways of doing this conversion to achieve better performance and reliable system.. This system is designed to generate 50Hz sinusoidal and 220volts alternating current and a total power of 200watts to provide power to sensitive equipment like computer, communication equipment, and/or to provide emergency light and power to some essential household appliances when there is power failure in the house. The desire to embark on the project was born out of the knowledge of the problem and discomfort that Nigerians faced when there is power failure in their homes or offices.

Even with generating sets, the user load will not pick-up power instantly when the failure occurs and where sensitive equipments like biomedical equipment and telecommunication equipment, where a momentary loss of power could result in equipment breakdown or data loss which could cause more labour to recreate (in the case of computer) or death in hospitals where such equipment were on power supply.


1.1 Project Objective

To overcome some of these shortcomings, a n uninterrupted power supply has been designed and constructed. This, we realized with rectifiers and inverter with a back-up power source. One interesting aspect of this system is that the unit is always in circuit when the supply authority is delivering power. The only requirement needs is a battery charger, automatic control system, inverter unit, battery (dc-source) and a step- up transformer. The mains charges the battery where the supply is ON and in the event of power failure, the load none derives its power from the battery via an automatic changeover switch.

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Literature Review

Any new generation of technology causes need for reliable electric power failure particularly to computer systems can cause millions of naira in down terms. Even momentary interruption in electric power cause loss of irretrievable data and even worsen equipment damage especially in development countries. The need for reliable power supply are sought by users, who requires clean and secured electricity supply to their sensitive equipment.

Typical UPS consists of a set of batteries, a battery charger and a power inverter. The inverter does the job of converting the relatively lone, direct current voltage into alternating current normally supplied by the power line. It is difficult to produce pure sine-wave power from an inverter, because an inverter creates alternating current by switching the direct current from the battery ON and OFF quickly. Resulting in squares, not sine waveform.
Changing these square pulses into pure sine wave takes a lot of circuitry. Today, inverters have designed and constructed several inverter in different forms depending on one’s ability and ingenuity.
From our review, big batteries UPS provide more power for a longer time. The output of power and duration increase or decrease in an inverse ratio.


Methodology

The design and construction of these automatic power supply, popularly known as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) was carried out from basic principles. The steps taken to realize this are as follows:

  1. Research on relevant texts: This was carried to review some literature of works carried out in similar fields by other researchers. Details of this literature review are shown in chapter two
  2. Block diagram design: The information gotten from step I above, the design of this project in blocks was carried out from “input to output”. This involves the building up of the circuit diagram of each block and various components.
  3. Bread boarding/Testing: The components were connected on a breadboard to test the workability of the whole circuit. Relevant tests were also carried out on each block to confirm its ability to feed the next block of the circuit.
  4. Circuit Layout: Also the confirmation that the design circuit was functional. The circuit wiring was done on a graph. It helps in determining the size of the veroboard used.
  5. Construction on veroboard: The construction experimented on the breadboard were transferred onto the veroboard and soldered properly.
  6. Testing: Tracing from the circuit diagram, relevant short circuit tests and open tests were carried out to make sure that there is no continuity where there should be open circuit and no open circuit where there should be continuity. The two terminal of the output were also tested to make sure that they are not short circuited.
  7. The constructing work was then packaged using a polished rectangular metallic box. A short circuit test was carried out to make sure that there is no continuity between the terminals and the packaged material which would lead to electric shock.

The device was finally tested using digital meter and oscilloscope.


Design Analysis

This automatic control system of power supply is an ideal, considering the nature of our public power supply system today, whereby one can be having doing something on a computer system or watching an interesting program on a TV and the likes and spontaneously public supply is required at least for the programs on the system to be saved. The automatic inverter capable of supplying 240volts from ordinary 12volts battery is very necessary in every homes and offices, mostly here in Nigeria.


Trickle Charging System

This method of charging is adopted for the restoration of the live standby D.C source. It is of particular importance for this kind of system. Trickle charging rate is about 1mA per Ah of capacity for lead-acid cells up to 100Ah. The continuous maintenance of this very low current keeps the battery fully charged without any guessing.


Automatic Function / Charging

As alternating current is normally is normally charging in accordance with the sine wave, which normally will cause vibration of the contacts of the contactor. The usually practice is to adopt direct current from the mains supply, for the automatic contactor coil. This will provide firm grip of the contacts as soon as the mains is on.

The standby 12volt DC supply source is recharge after use, immediately the mains power supply is restored by means of the charging unit. The unit have a common connection with the source of DC supply to the automatic control system.


Principle of Operation

The main flow of energy is from the rectifier to the inverter with the standby battery kept in “float”. If the supply voltage falls below a certain level or completely, the battery output to the inverter maintains a cleans AC supply. When the mains power supply is resorted, the main energy flow again starts from the rectifier to the inverter but, in addition, the rectifier recharges the battery. When the standby battery gets fully charged, the charging current is automatically throttled back due to steep rise in the back emf of the battery.

An automatic/manual bypass switch is used to correct the load either directly to the mains Ac supply or to the inverter AC supply.

Depending on application, the voltage of Ups standby may be anywhere between 12v and 400v. with current ranging from a few amperes to 2000A. it has zero change over time and has audio beeper which indicate mains failure and battery discharge. It provides 100% protection against line noise, spikes, surges and radio frequency interference.

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