The Design Of Ikenegbu Owerri Electrification Project

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


Power is the basic need for the economic development and its availability has been the most powerful vehicle for economic development and social change through out the world. Therefore, it needs proper planning and design. In this project, electrical principles and considerations when planning and designing electrical projects are reviewed.

Chapter one of this project gives an introduction, Chapter two takes a literature Review of the project. Furthermore, Chapter three and Chapter four gives detailed information of the design, testing and results respectively. While Chapter five gives the conclusion and Recommendation of the project.

The design gives the total estimated load demand to be 28 MVA and the projected load to be 30MVA.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Approval page
  • Acknowledgement
  • Dedication
  • Table of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Standard Voltages and Frequency

Chapter two

  • 2.0 Literature Review

Chapter three

  • 3.0 Design of Ikenegbu Owerri Municipal Electrification Projects
  • 3.1 Design Considerations
  • 3.11 Design Procedure
  • 3.2 Location of available grid system
  • 3.3 Load survey and Analysis
  • 3.31 Dwelling Houses
  • 3.32 Hospitals, Offices and Workshop/Cottage Industries
  • 3.33 Industrial Consumers
  • 3.34 Total Load Analysis
  • 3.4 Over Head Line Support and Fittings
  • 3.41 Electric Pole Support
  • 3.42 Conductors and Cables
  • 3.43 Cross Arm Supports
  • 3.5 Sub-Stations and Equipment

Chapter four

  • 4.0 Testing and Results
  • 4.01 Insulation Resistance Test
  • 4.02 Short Circuit Test
  • 4.03 Transformer Ratio Test
  • 4.04 Earth Resistance Test
  • 4.1 Results

Chapter five

  • 5.0 Conclusions
  • 5.1 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

Electricity gives rise to electrical and electronics installation works. Electrical installation in buildings, factories, villages, towns etc. comprises various types of electrical materials, apparatus and equipment interconnected with cables and conductors in fixed position ready for use. An electrical installation put in place is mainly for the distribution and utilization of electrical energy.

Given the importance of electricity and its usefulness to mankind, regulations and procedures exist to guarantee continuous supply and safety of users of electrical installation. Compliance with regulation and procedures during electrical installation work ensures that the premises so connected as well as users of electricity are protected from electrical accident, shock, fire outbreak and other problems which may result from bad electrical installation works. To achieve these, proper design of the installation must be done which must also conform to the regulations and procedures for electrical installation.

Ikenegbu Layout in Owerri Municipal of Imo State being part of the state capital, Owerri forms residence for the state dignitaries, politicians and civil servants. For these, commercial activities like fast food houses, business plazas, banks etc. are attracted to this area.

The choice of this site as a case study is based on the fact that it has the features of a typical town.

1.1 Standard Voltages And Frequency

The standard ac system voltages as defined in the Electricity Act Supply Regulation 3(2) shall be 230 volts between phase and neutral conductors and 400, 3300, 6600, 11000, 33000, 66000, 132000, 330000 and 750000 volts between any two phase conductors of a three phase system. Presently, the highest standard system voltage in Nigeria is 330000 volts. Functionally, the ranges of the more commonly used voltages are as classified below:

  1. Extra low Voltage: Voltages below 100 volts.
  2. Low Voltages: Voltages exceeding 100 volts but not exceeding 250 volts.
  3. Medium Voltages: Voltages exceeding 1000 volts but not exceeding 3000 volts.
  4. Extra High Voltages: Voltages exceeding 3000 volts.

In any line circuit at the consumers premises, an electric current will flow from one point to another once there is a potential difference between any two points. The potential difference at the consumer’s terminal measured in volts is usually referred to as the supply voltage. The ac voltage normally passes through a complete series of positive and negative circles a number of times per second. This number is usually known as the frequency measured in Hertz (Hz) where a hertz is equal to one cycle per second, the frequency of ac system shall be 50Hz. Due to voltage drop in the distribution system, it is definitely impossible for the supply authority to maintain the same constant voltage at all their consumer’s terminals.

However, the supply authority voltage and frequency are not allowed to vary for more than 6% and 1% respectively above or below the declared voltage and frequency. The national agreed low and medium ac and dc voltages are:

  1. Alternating Current – 240 volts and 415 volts, 3-phase, 4-wire at 50Hz.
  2. Direct Current – 230 and 460 volts.

Generally, the type of supply to be provided for any area or consumer premises or load in a given area depends on a number of factors. The factors include: distance involved, the available supply system, area spread, the capacity load, and the type of load etc.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.0 Conclusion

The pre-design of an electrification project is very important as it helps the contractor to know the demand of the area, the materials and type to use and also make provision for an expansion in demand to avoid problems in the future. This design which is achieved by knowing and tracing the route of the area and also making building and load survey to know the materials to be used can also very important as it helps in the quick execution of the projects.


5.1 Recommendations

Before an electrification project is executed, there should be a per-designed work of this project, taking into account all the design considerations.

From the densely population of buildings in this area and also for the facts that there is an extension to this layout and other towns close to it, an injection sub-station should be established to serve this layout and the nearby towns.
Six (6) 4.5MVA transformers should be installed to feed the public demand and the Industrial consumers or every consumer having a load demand close to or above 50KVA should be connected using their own transformer.


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