Design And Construction Of An Electrical Robotic Train; The Control System Drive

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


The ability to control the direction and speed of an electrical machine like the dc motor with tremendous accuracy is an attractive feature of the dc motor. As research shows, the most commonly used methods of achieving this speed alteration is by varying any of the following:

  1. The flux,
  2. The armature voltage,
  3. Both the flux and the armature voltage.

For this project work, the armature voltage of the motor is made to vary, resulting to a variation in the flux of the motor as well, given that the increase in the armature voltage would result to an enhance in the number of revolutions per minutes, namely the speed.

Most modern power electronics devices and circuit arrangements are used for speed control in dc machines with great efficiency. A miscellaneous approach to achieve speed variation is by the use of tapped transformer. Worthy of note is the careful and wise usage of high power relays since relays has the ability to be controlled by small amount of voltage of about 12volts and little current (i.e. low power), but can be used to control or drive high power loads of hundreds of voltages with huge amount of current passing through the relay’s conducing terminals.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Contents
  • Abstract

Chapters one

1.0 Introduction


Chapters Two

2.0 Literature review


Chapters Three

3.0 Component Analysis of the Control System

  • 3.1 The relay
  • 3.2 Transistors
  • 3.3 Resistors
  • 3.4 Diodes and diodes rectifier circuit
  • 3.5 Capacitor
  • 3.6 Light emitting diode
  • 3.7 The transformer
  • 3.8 555 timer IC
  • 3.9 12v regulator
  • 3.10 The electric motor

Chapters Four

4.0 Design and Circuit Analysis

  • 4.1 Electronics circuit
  • 4.2 Power circuit
  • 4.3 Power-electronics circuit

Chapters Five

5.0 Recommendation and Conclusion

  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

robot is a computer-controlled machine that can be programmed to move, manipulate objects and accomplish work while interacting with its environments and a train or locomotive any type of self-propelled vehicle used by railroads to pull or push other types of rolling stock, including passenger, freight, and work cars. The locomotive differs from other kinds of self-propelled railroad vehicles in that it is used solely as a power unit and is not designed for carrying passengers or freight, as are trolley cars and some electric cars. One may wonder if these tow things that seem to be different could ever be just one machine.

In practice, a robot is an electromechanical system which by its appearance or movements conveys a sense that it has intent or agency of its own. They can be able to perform more repetitive task, more quickly, cheaply and accurately then humans.

The word Robot originates from the Czech word “Robota” meaning compulsory labor. This was used in 1921, after a play writer Karel Capek portrays a forceful labor in his play “Rossunis Universal Robots”. Robots, as a word has since then been used, to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work that humans find difficult or undesirable.

There is no consensus on which machine qualifies as a robot, but it is believed among experts that robots should have the following abilities.

  • That it is composed of ratified substance and can sense its environment and interact with it.
  • That it can make choice based on its environment using a programmed sequence of automatic control.
  • That it is programmable.
  • That it must move with or without direct human intervention and
  • Finally, That it appears to have intent or agency

The Electrical Robotic train is a prototype of an electrical train that is manned by a robot. This electrical train is built to replace the steam-locomotive engines, which is known for its environmental polluting effects and slow acceleration and speed.

An electrical robotic train, like other robots, could be computer controlled and mimic the practical Giant Electrical Trains. The inspiration of the design of this robotic train is to employ speed, precision, consistency and relieving human from tedious task of controlling the train. The wheels and joints of the robotic train are being driven by an electric motor.

In real life, the wheel may be driven by mechanical engines and computer process known as inverse kinematics is used to calculate the desired position or destination. The designing involve modeling the robots physical properties, its environment and planning its environment and directing its mechanism efficiently and ensuring the safety of its behavior using electronic sensors to provide feedback to the controlling section.

Robots in this 20th century has appeared in wide spread use, performing jobs more cheaply with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are widely used, for example in the industry for manufacturing, mass production, assembly of products, packaging, and transporting, and for exploration on earth and the outer-space, not to mention its usage in medicine and surgery and military.

Robots that operate Laser guidance systems for missiles, aircraft, and satellites have been constructed. Guns can be fitted with laser sights and range finders automatically to an enemy’s direction. The use of High-powered machines to destroy space weapons, reconnaissance and communications satellites and perhaps even hostile ballistic missiles has been proposed in most of the rich nations of the earth. High-tech weapon development continues apace.

Sensors—whether deployed in the air, in space, in the ocean, or on the ground—enable a modern army to see more quickly and clearly than ever before, even in difficult terrain, such as jungles. Once sensors spot a target, missiles, torpedoes, or computer-guided bombs can hit it—often with amazing accuracy. As the new technologies are perfected and integrated, “distance warfare” becomes very easy reality, enabling an army to see everything, hit everything, and destroy much that an enemy has.

In this 20th century, many fully autonomous machines have appeared. Over 1 million Robots are estimated to be in operation in the industrial world. They are used in welding, painting of cars clearing of nuclear waste etc.
Similarly, Robots can explore active distance planets like THE NASA’S GALIBEO, an unpiloted space probe which travels to Jupiter in 2006 and the Robotic Mars pathfinder rover which landed in Mars in 2003.

The recent trend in robots is the development of micro electromechanical system ranging from centimeter to millimeter in size. This can move through the blood stream to deliver medicine or clean artery blockage. The can still diagnose impending mechanical problems in machines.


Chapter Five


5.0 Recommendation and Conclusion

Electrical Robotic train as a project is connected with the construction of a prototype of electric train which can be power electrically and operated by a robot. It simply involves the use of programmed instruction to perform the basic function of control a train like reverse, stop, speed control (gear) etc. This is to employ the high accuracy and speed associated with robots and at the same time, eliminate the monotony of repetitive activity and fatigue as well as the slow reaction time associated with human beings.

Despite the advantages of high speed control and accuracy, Robots are still machines whose efficiency is never up to 100% and at the same time susceptible to breakdown and most especially, can only manage pre-arranged situation. In case of un-anticipated or unforeseen circumstances, while still on motion, the reaction or behavior of robot is unpredictable.

Therefore, the robot should not be given 100% responsibility of driving the train and taking decision, but it is recommended that practical trains should start incorporating the use of robots for higher speed and should only be used as auto driving facility while someone controls it to manage any difficult situation which the program may not handle. Robot manned trains can be employed in short town shuttling services, where the railway can easily be monitored by government for smooth driving.


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