Design And Construction Of A Remote Control Switching Device For Household Appliances Application

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Design And Construction Of A Remote Control Switching Device For Household Appliances Application


Remote control switching device for household application is a home device used to control the switching of household appliances from a distance. It serves to make the switching of household appliances easy for the elderly, physically challenged, the young and anyone who, in any circumstance, needs comfort and security. This paper develops a remote control system using the Radio Frequency technology utilizing multiplexers, demultiplexers, encoders, decoders, and Radio Frequency module with the analysis of various technologies which can be used for the development of a remote control system. A security system is incorporated in this remote control to provide a secured usage of the system from a distance of about ten meters away.

To achieve the aim of this work: a transmitter system is design and constructed which processes and sends out signal when a button is pressed; the construction of a receiver system which receives and processes the signal from the transmitter system, then turn on or turn off the appliances; and incorporate a security system which allows transmission of signal only when certain condition is met. Avoiding the use of microcontroller, this paper developed an affordable, reliable and effective remote control system for household applications

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the study

Remote controls are devices that send digitally encoded pulses to control functions such as power, volume, configuration, set temperature, fan speed, to name a few, to control different equipment. These devices are typically small portable wireless objects with an array for several adjustable tuning buttons for the TV channel, track number and volume. For many devices, the remote control contains all the function controls, while the controlled device has only a handful of essential main controls. Previous remote controls used ultrasonic tones. The remote control has constantly evolved and advanced in recent years to include infrared (IR), radio frequency, Bluetooth connectivity, motion detection capabilities, voice control.

The infrared remote control has proven to be the most popular equipment for office applications, for example to control the air conditioning, turn the light on or off, as well as the normal use of satellite receivers and televisions. In this article, while implementing the use of various technologies that integrate security, a remote control system that uses radiofrequency technology is developed.

Most homes use many electrical and electronic devices such as TV, floor fan, ceiling fan, air conditioning, light bulbs, video players, radio, etc. All these devices require switching to turn these devices on and off in the traditional way. This manual change of any appliance is an impractical method for the physically disabled or the elderly or even for the young and busy when a frequent change is required. Therefore, an easier switching method is developed to replace this manual switching method, using an advanced switching method for household appliances.

The early wired remotes made possible for users to control appliances at a distance, but the wired remote also limited the userโ€™s mobility by either tethering or tripping the users. If the user ran the remote controlโ€™s cord under the rugs and furniture, effectively anchoring the device to one location in the room, the remote thereby limits the freedom of movement for which it was designed to provide. But if the cord is left out in the open, the users might stumble over it. The wireless remote control solved all these challenges of the wired remote control and effectively takes control of the household. The use of remote to restore order to the household, changes life style; brings multi-function and multi-platform lives easy.

Various technologies have evolved in the past: controlled by radio waves; used to execute commands transmitted by electromagnetic waves; and also the use of battery-operated lowfrequency radio transmitter remote control for consumer electronics. The idea for an electronic remote control, which worked wirelessly by shining a beam of light onto a photoelectric cell, came up in the United State in 1955. Advancement in remote control kept going till recent days where many technologies such as infrared, radio frequency, Bluetooth, Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications control are used for remote control.

The major technology used in home remote controls is infrared (IR) light. The signal between a remote control handset and the device that it controls consists of pulses of infrared light, which is invisible to the human eye, but can be seen through a digital camera, video camera or a phone camera. The transmitter in the remote control handset sends out a stream of pulses of infrared light when the user presses a button on the handset. A transmitter is often a light emitting diode (LED) which is built into the pointing end of the remote control handset.

The infrared light pulses form a pattern unique to that button. The receiver in the device recognizes the pattern and causes the device to respond accordingly. Radio Frequency (RF) remote control is used to control distant objects using a variety of radio signals transmitted by the remote control device. As a complementary method to infrared remote controls, the radio remote control was used with electric garage door or gate openers, automatic barrier systems, burglar alarms (for security and also for restriction of the use of household appliances) and industrial automation systems.

1.2 Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study is to design and construct a remote control switch for home appliances. The need for a remote control alert system that can control domestic appliances and various lighting points and sockets has often been a concern for users. At times users find it inconvenient and time consuming to go around turning their appliances on or off each time there is power outage or each time they are leaving the house for work. It has also often led to damage of appliances due to the fact that an appliance was not turned off before leaving the house.

The Objective of putting up this project, therefore, is to design an equipment that can facilitate a convenient and easy way of controlling our domestic appliances, lighting points and sockets especially in powering them, without always going to appliances physically by ourselves.

This objective will be accomplished using various components which include a Microcontroller (AT89C51) which acts as the backbone of the project together with other components.

1.3 Justification of the study

The ease of putting our appliances, lighting points and sockets on or off has made it necessary to develop this system in order to control our appliances, lighting points and sockets from a central point using a remote control. The issues of always forgetting our appliances ON when leaving the house has often caused fire outbreak and explosion in homes and this is another reason that led to designing and construction of this project.

1.4 Scope of diagrams in the study

In this project report, the diagrams will range from simple block diagrams to complex circuit diagrams which will comprise mostly of common electrical and electronics symbols. Some of the diagrams that will feature in this report will be used as the main block on which certain parameters will be explained upon. Relevant electronic components will also be shown and described.

This project report will also contain an outline of the circuit diagram as it is seen physically. The package design diagram will be included showing the width, height in millimeter (mm).

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