Training As A Veritable Tool For The Improvement Of Secretarial Efficiency In An Organization

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Training As A Veritable Tool For The Improvement Of Secretarial Efficiency In An Organization


This Project work is “An Analysis of Training as Tool for improvement of secretarial Efficiency in an organization.” This was necessitated by the fact that most organizations fail, not because their workers, especially secretaries are not efficient, but as a result of lack of constant training. This is necessary in view of continuous technological changes nowadays. The data generated using a structured questionnaire administered to all the 80 secretaries in Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Oyo State using the percentage method. It was found out, amongst others that increased learning made the secretaries more competent. In view of this, it was partly recommended that organizations should have a consistent policy of sending their staff on regular training and developments programmes, as well as seminars, workshop and conferences.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

The introduction of new working tools, particularly via the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Nigeria, has posed a severe threat to the Nigerian economy in all aspects. As a result, executive secretaries must stay up to date on current technology and how it affects office procedures and operations. Executive secretaries must be retrained and given a learning environment on a regular basis in order to get familiar with new difficulties in the office and contribute effectively and efficiently to the attainment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Training programs can help you become a knowledgeable and efficient secretary. Pre-service training, on-the-job experience training, and in-service training are the three phases of an in-service training program that should be appropriate and sound (Diraso, 1992). In-service training is a lifelong process in which a person learns and adapts to new problems in his or her profession. This is accomplished by the secretary reading books, journals, and periodicals in his field of expertise, conversing with colleagues and supervisors about professional issues, and attending courses and conferences related to his field. In-service training seeks to keep workers up to date and improve their professional knowledge, skills, and abilities, as well as widen their understanding of their key areas of competence (Itotoh, 1996). Itotoh maintained that such areas may include: writing, editing, production and distribution of correspondence (publications), maintains all corporate books and accounts, receives and disburses fund (finance), assists in recruiting new members by responding promptly to telephone and e-mail enquires, maintains all membership, maintain all records and files all forms (regulatory) and fluent in Hyper-Text Markup Language (computer literacy). According to Osuala and Okeke (2006), training involves providing employees with directed experience that enables them to be more effective in performing the various tasks that constitute their jobs. If effective, the training experiences result in changes in employee’s attitudes, work habits, and performance. From the above definitions, one can now say that in-service training is a means of building up skills through reading professional materials, attending conferences and workshops in order to perform excellently and to bring about high productivity in the work place. Aminu and Ibeneme (2005), defined office training as a calculated attempt towards improving quality of an employee in terms of skills, knowledge and attitude with a view to obtaining qualitative and quantitative output from him. In-service training needs arise when workers or employees cannot cope with new techniques and innovations in their professional areas. They maintained that work training is a well planned and organized efforts to change the behaviour and to improve on the skills acquired by an employee as to perform to acceptable standard on the job.

Office training is a vital aspect of organizational management. This is because it is an investment in people and its essence is to enable the staff acquire more knowledge and better techniques by way of improved standard and quality of work as well as help create job satisfaction for the staff. It should be noted that in a fast changing technological age, the need for employees in-service training cannot be overemphasized, hence, it should be encouraged, organized and be a continuous exercise (Ofordile, 2007).

Several authors such as (Onah 2003), Mahapatra (2002) among others have emphasized the importance of training as it increases both quality and quantity of output, engenders self-confidence and good judgement, develops positive orientation towards work, is very crucial in organizations especially in the changing environment in which secretaries work.

Mahapatra (2002) opined that secretarial training is essential in public establishments to improve and maintain the service quality and standard of staff and the organization itself. Therefore, the secretaries require adequate training so that they can handle confidently more diverse and demanding assignments. He maintain that the goals and objectives of the organization will be achieved by the motivation, dedication, quality of work and skills that would be exhibited by the training staff in their work environment. He strongly posited that in-service training plays a vital role in ensuring that the organization staff are prepared to take on their responsibilities.

Bryson (1990) maintained that every organization has the basic purpose of achieving a set of roles with respect to the management of its human resources. This is done by improving the performance of members of the organization to achieve a set goal or objective for the organization. This is because the productivity or success of any given organization depends to a large extent on the calibre of the people who work for it. Thus, this can be achieved when human potentials that serve as the backbone of the organization are developed, and properly managed. If the staff are effectively developed, their knowledge, skills and competence can lead to enviable social and economic heights of the organization in its goals accomplishment.

Collins (1994) opined that there should be some constant retraining exercises for executive secretaries in order to be well equipped and up-to-date in their knowledge, attitude and skills. He went further to state that such retraining should be in all areas of secretarial development which include Information and Communication Technology Skills, Human relation skills, stenographic, Communication, Administrative and managerial skills, reprographic, micrographic and electronic record keeping skills. Retraining and developing the executive secretaries in the above areas will enable them to discharge their duties and responsibilities effectively and efficiently and with higher degree of performance.

Agbo (2006), described an secretary as an employee who can cope with all the stress and demands of the office in a manner that will ensure her overall control of the crises that may emanate from managing records, communication, information, people and other resources that are intrinsically involved in making office the nerve center of any business organization. Executive secretaries and office secretaries are seen as an administrative assistant who is able to cope with the stress involves in his work and who is able to carry out his assigned responsibilities with less or no supervision. Public establishments according to Oldroyd (1994) are government owned, financed, controlled and managed organizations. Therefore, an effective and efficient public establishment is one that has workers who exhibit high levels of job quality performance, high productivity and organizational commitments. According to Cole (1996), training is an activity designed to improve key areas of skills and knowledge. He maintained that development is broader than training because development is centred on increase in knowledge and skills acquisition. Training and development is designed to ensure that the organization has a competent and skilled workforce to meet present needs and taking steps to ensure that fresh skills and knowledge are being developed to meet future needs. These secretarial training programme could be achieved through attendance at University, attendance at relevant conferences, seminars, symposia and workshops. Also, through study leave, self tuition, use of on-line packages, undertaking new responsibilities (Ade, 2007).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

New and developed working tools, machines and technological advancement has been extended to all spheres of human endeavours. Offices are daily modernized through the use of latest equipment and procedures. These affect the secretarial profession. The challenges of new techniques and innovations demand from secretaries much greater responsibilities and improved performances on their jobs.

The essence of providing training for secretaries is to enable them develop professionally, keep abreast on new knowledge and technology in their office procedures and operations. However, Oldroyd (1994) and Mahapatra (2002), have observed that public establishments pay only lip service to in-service training of their employees and this automatically accounts for staff inadequacies such as poor job performance. It is in this Gbosi (1999) maintains that where in-service training exists, it is haphazardly coordinated, poorly monitored and organized. Ofordile (2007) observes that in-service training programmes have continued to experience the constraints of inadequate funds. This is because employees’ retraining in public establishment is considered expensive in terms of time and maintenance of staff during the programme. He maintains that lack of willingness by the employees to be retrained and some staff with long experience may not show interest in in-service training programmes that do not have any weight for purpose of assessment and they hardly take retraining seriously as a means of changing behaviour of the organization.

There is also the management inability to recognize the in-service training needs of their employees. The work force is generally under-tapped, under- utilized and therefore falls short of its anticipated contributions to the realization of organizational goals.

Therefore, these above inadequacies, if not properly addressed will result in poor performance, difficulty in attaining organizational goals and objectives, and lack of individual development and so on. These anomalies should urgently be corrected for the benefit of both the organizations and their staff members. It is therefore very significant to find out the service training needs of secretaries in public establishments.

1.3 Objective of the Study

The major objective of this study was to examine training as a veritable tool for the improvement of secretarial efficiency in an organization, the study sought:

  1. To assess the relationship between training and secretarial efficiency.
  2. To examine the different ways training can be used to improve secretarial efficiency
  3. To examine the impact of training as a tool for the improvement of an organization.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the impacts of training as a tool for the improvement of an organization?
  2. What are the different training methods that can be used to improve secretarial efficiency?
  3. What is the relationship between training and secretarial efficiency?

1.4 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that the findings of this study will be of immense benefit to administrators, secretarial staff, researchers, secretarial education students.

Administrators (management): There is no single organization that can do without training and developing its staff. As such this study will provide adequate information to the management that will go through it to get a foreknowledge of the types of in-service training needs of their staff and the importance of in-service training and the condition that determine that. They could adopt the findings to plan and organize in-service training programmes for their staff.

Secretarial staff: The secretaries will be made to realize that adequate in-service training programmes enable them to possess the level of intellectuals skills with which they can perfectly and proficiently handle the demands of their daily routines and to understand that adequate training will help to ensure job satisfaction.

Scholars and Academicians: this study will serve as an existing material for reference and further studies. Finally, secretarial education students would benefit from the findings of the study. They would understand better concepts being taught and be able to express their views about concepts encountered In classroom interactions.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on unveiling the training as a veritable tool for the improvement of secretarial efficiency in an organization. Also, this study will assess the relationship between training and secretarial efficiency. The study will further examine the different ways training can be used to improve secretarial efficiency.

The findings of this study will be limited to Cross River State Nigeria. Some selected secretaries from the University of Calabar, Cross River State serve as the enrolled participants for this study.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study was restricted to training needs of secretaries in the University of Calabar. This study was delimited to University of Calabar, Cross River state. Further more, this study only focused on secretaries and no other employees of an organization.

1.8 Definition of Terms


The action of teaching a person a particular skill or type


An example of improving or being improved


A person employed by an individual or in an office to assist with correspondence, make appointments, and carry out administrative tasks


The state or quality of being efficient

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to investigate training as a veritable tool for the improvement of secretarial efficiency of organizations in Plataeu State, using 3 selected organizations in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at examining the effects of training in an organization, examine the relationship between training and secretarial efficiency in manufacturing companies in Plateau State, examine the relationship between training and employee performance in organizations in Plateau State, and examine the effects between training and secretarial efficiency in organizations in Plateau State. This study was anchored on the Holland (1959) typology theory of vocational behavior, Human behaviour theory and the Scientific Theory.
The study adopted the survey research design and conveniently enrolled participants in the study. A total of 36 responses were received and validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from the staff of the three sampled organizations in Jos North LGA, Plateau State.

5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. The effects or impacts of training in an organization is that it enhances optimal level of performance, brings about the latest techniques and style in office operation, utilization of well trained personnel and staff, and brings about an up to date working environment.
  2. The different training methods that can be used to improve Secretarial efficiency in an organization includes the use of Information and communication technology, internet skills, and human relations skills
  3. The relationship between training and secretarial efficiency is that it reduces redundancy, helps to keep secretaries abreast with the latest working tools, leads to optimal productivity, and reduces unnecessary stress.

5.3 Recommendations

In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are hereby proposed:

  1. Training is a necessary part of any growing organizations
  2. Employees training should be carried out periodically to promote commitment, performance and productivity.
  3. Effective training techniques should be used during training programs
  4. Proper methods of training and development should be devised to promote employees career growth.
  5. Secretaries must have the technical know- how of latest work tools so as to perform optimally.

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