Entrepreneurship Opportunities For Office Technology And Management Graduate: A Panacea For Unemployment
This study was carried out on entrepreneurship opportunities for office technology and management graduate: a panacea for unemployment using Kaduna polytechnic as a case study. To achieve this, four significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of office technology and management students in Kaduna polytechnic. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents while 153 were received and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency, and mean score tables. While the hypothesis was tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there are entrepreneurship opportunities available for OTM students. Also, the study discovered that entrepreneurship education enhances acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria. Further findings showed that the entrepreneurship opportunities in the OTM programme consist of monetizing shorthand skills independently, running a business center, owning a consultancy firm, The extent to which Entrepreneurship Education (EDE) has exposed OTM graduates to entrepreneurship opportunities is high. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that office Technology and Management departments should be provided with adequate equipment and facilities like computers, scanners, photocopiers internet facilities to enable the youths upon graduation, be equipped with adequate skills to run entrepreneurial ventures of their own. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
It has been reported that Nigeria is the most populated nation in Africa with a population of over 160 million according to 2006 census and she has the fourth largest economy in the continent. Ironically, Nigerian is categorized among the poorest in the world with more than 60% of the country’s population living below poverty line, that is, they live on less than one U.S Dollar per-day according to National Planning Commission (NPC, 2004). This situation persisted inspite of the fact that the country exports huge quantities of crude oil daily (Terdoo, 2014).
The problem with Nigeria stems from the fact that a vast percentage of her population is made up of peasant farmers, petty traders, civil servants (some of whom are underemployed) and the rest unemployed. The unemployment rate in the country was put at about 3 million by 2004 (NBS, 2004); while the polytechnics, mono-technics, colleges of education and the universities continue to churn out graduates annually into the labour market that is already saturated due to their inability to start up their own businesses. This situation stem from the various challenges that confronts graduates especially OTM in achieving their career aspirations and entrepreneurship development.
Worried by the high rate of graduate unemployment which has been put at 1.8million yearly, Esene (2014) reported that the Presidency had in 2006, issued a directive to all higher educational institutions in Nigeria to include on its curriculum of studies, Entrepreneurship Development Education (EDE) as a compulsory course for all students irrespective of the students’ areas of discipline. Today, this directive is in force in all tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
The introduction of Entrepreneurship Development Education (EDE) is seen as one of the right steps taken in the right direction. It should be noted that the introduction of basic education in Nigeria (FRN,2012) has provision for entrepreneurship education and it is also embedded in the secondary education, as well as tertiary education curriculum. Osuala (2004) stated that EDE is a programme that prepares individuals and students to undertake the information of and/or operation of small business enterprises which also includes franchise operations for the purpose of performing all business functions relating to a product or service with emphasis given to the social responsibilities, legal requirements and risks for the sake of profit making in the conduct of a private enterprise. This implies that entrepreneurship programme prepares or equips learners with the skills that make them not just capable, but also willing to undertake and run a small business of any kind with the sole aim of making profit. This they can achieve because they have the acquired skills that are required for that task. Such business ventures could be in the area of product or service business.
Nwangwu (2006), notes that entrepreneurship is the willingness and the ability of an individual or a firm to identify an environmental change and exploit such an opportunity to produce goods and services for public consumption. Entrepreneurship is the totality of those attributes that enable a person to identify hidden business opportunities along with the capacity to organize needed resources with which to profitably take advantage of such opportunities in the face of calculated risk and uncertainty (Essien, 2006). The prosperity and progress of a nation depend on the quality of its people. If they are enterprising, ambitious and courageous enough to bear the risk, the society will develop quickly. Such people are identified as entrepreneurs and their character reflects entrepreneurship.
Osemeke (2012) states that entrepreneurship development refers to the process of enhancing entrepreneurial skills and knowledge through structured training and institution-building programmes. Entrepreneurship development aims to enlarge the base of entrepreneurs in order to hasten the pace at which new ventures are created. This accelerates employment generations and economic development. Entrepreneurial development focuses on the individual who wishes to start or expand a business. Moreover, entrepreneurship development in Nigeria concentrates more on growth potential and innovation. Essentially this means the acquisition of skills that will enable an entrepreneur to function appropriately and adequately in terms of turning the perceived challenges into opportunities.
A nation’s ability to generate a steady stream of business opportunities can only come about when its people take to entrepreneurial activities. Good Entrepreneurs can create a strong economy. They are an important facet of industrial growth and development of a nation. According to Harper (2003) entrepreneurship is the main mechanism that creates wealth, explanations of economic growth and development often ignore (or fail to acknowledge explicitly) the entrepreneurial forces of change and adaptation that underlie economic performance. Entrepreneurship development in the office management career has not been very successful due to the numerous challenges facing the entrepreneurship development of Office Technology and Management(OTM) graduates in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria is naturally endowed with entrepreneurship opportunities; however, the realization of the full potential of these opportunities has been dampened by some challenges (Ebiringa, 2012). It has however been worrisome that despite the accessibility of technology and government contributions towards entrepreneurship development, entrepreneurship in Nigeria has not performed creditably well and hence the expected vital and vibrant role OTM graduate entrepreneur should play in the economic growth and development of Nigeria has been constrained by the challenges, such as difficulties in accessing fund to start up their own business, lack of knowledge of the business venture they enter into, poor infrastructural to promote their business, unfair competition, multiple taxes, unfavorable monetary policies, inadequate market research, unfavorable fiscal policies, poor government policy implementation, which has constrained the entrepreneurship ability of the OTM students and graduate. On completion of their studies, OTM graduates are equipped with the necessary entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to become entrepreneurs and further their career aspirations. However, OTM graduates in Nigeria are faced with mountain of challenges that hamper their entrepreneurship and career development. This study is therefore undertaking to examine entrepreneurship opportunities for office technology and management graduate: a panacea for unemployment.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to assess entrepreneurship opportunities for office technology and management graduate: a panacea for unemployment. The study has the following specific objectives.
- To determine whether entrepreneurship education enhances acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria
- To ascertain the entrepreneurship opportunities in the OTM programme.
- To investigate the extent to which Entrepreneurship Education (EDE) has exposed OTM graduates to entrepreneurship opportunities
- To ascertain factors limiting OTM graduate from utilizing entrepreneurship opportunities
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are raised in line with the objectives of the study.
- Does entrepreneurship education enhance acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria?
- What are the entrepreneurship opportunities in the OTM programme?
- What is the extent to which Entrepreneurship Education (EDE) has exposed OTM graduates to entrepreneurship opportunities?
- What are factors limiting OTM graduate from utilizing entrepreneurship opportunities?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The study will geared towards testing the following hypotheses
- H0: There are no entrepreneurship opportunities available for OTM students.
- Ha: There are entrepreneurship opportunities available for OTM students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will provide relevant information on the importance of entrepreneurship development to stakeholders in the education sub-sector which will encourage them to put in place policies and measures that will enhance entrepreneurship development education in schools.
Secondly, it will also provide useful information to the government that will stimulate the government to put in place measures that will promote and enhance entrepreneurship development of Graduates in Nigeria. Thirdly, the study will provide relevant information that will enhance collaboration between private institutions and the government to fashion out an effective way of providing an enabling environment for the growth of entrepreneurship among graduates in Nigeria. Finally, this study will add to the body of literature pertaining to career structure and job satisfaction. Empirically, the study will add to the general body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to student and scholars who wish to conduct further studies in related field.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is aimed at investigating entrepreneurship opportunities for office technology and management graduate: a panacea for unemployment. Therefore, the study area covers OTM students in Kaduna Polytechnic.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition of Terms
This is the phenomenon of creating a new business fermenting and managing it taking risk and making losses or profit.
This refers to loans for business.
This refers to funds required to set up a business.
This refers to profitable business activity that can be under taken.
1.10 Organisations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings into entrepreneurship opportunities for office technology and management graduate: a panacea for unemployment using Kaduna polytechnic as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was to examine entrepreneurship opportunities for office technology and management graduate: a panacea for unemployment using Kaduna polytechnic as a case study. The study specifically was set determine whether entrepreneurship education enhances acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria, ascertain the entrepreneurship opportunities in the OTM programme, investigate the extent to which Entrepreneurship Education (EDE) has exposed OTM graduates to entrepreneurship opportunities, and ascertain factors limiting OTM graduate from utilizing entrepreneurship opportunities.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are office technology and management students in Kaduna polytechnic.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- There are entrepreneurship opportunities available for OTM students.
- Entrepreneurship education enhances acquisition of the necessary skills for gainful self-employment in Nigeria.
- The entrepreneurship opportunities in the OTM programme consist of monetizing shorthand skills independently, running a business center, owning a consultancy firm, The extent to which Entrepreneurship Education (EDE) has exposed OTM graduates to entrepreneurship opportunities is high.
- The factors limiting OTM graduate from utilizing entrepreneurship opportunities comprises of lack of adequate access to working capital, the problem of hiring the right employees, inadequate technical and technological infrastructure, expatriate market competition, and economic recession.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- Office Technology and Management departments should be provided with adequate equipment and facilities like computers, scanners, photocopiers internet facilities to enable the youths upon graduation, be equipped with adequate skills to run entrepreneurial ventures of their own.
- Government should provide and create an investor –friendly environment to enable the sustenance of small/medium scale enterprises.
- There should be training and retaining of academic staff of OTM departments to enable them acquire and update their skills in the areas of desktop publishing and website designing.
- Workshops and seminars should be organized for entrepreneurs by the various government training agencies to enable sustenance and success of entrepreneurs. This will in turn enhance self reliance and economic development.
Entrepreneurship Opportunities For Office Technology And Management Graduate: A Panacea For Unemployment
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Frequently Asked Questions
What can you do with an entrepreneurial degree?
At big companies, the C-level folks develop ideas, the ground force does the work and mid-level management converts the idea into execution. Graduates with entrepreneurial degrees are well-suited for this opportunity. 2. Business Consultant The Fortune 500 is ripe with business consultants.
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