The Role Of Plants In The Treatment Of Diseases Caused By Microorganisms Based In The Natural Products

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

The Role Of Plants In The Treatment Of Diseases Caused By Microorganisms Based In The Natural Products


Abstract


This study was carried out on the role of plants in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products. The study was specifically carried out to determine the antibacterial effect of P. amarus and P. niruri, and determine the anti fungal effect of P. amarus and P. niruri. In the course of this study, Fresh leaves of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri were collected at the University of Calabar staff village. the dried leaves were blended to fine powder using a manual blended (F No 4 Quaker City, Mill Philadelphia PA.U.S.A F8). and batch extraction was carried out on the material. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against the following micro organisms (bacteria and fungi). the organisms used in the study were micro organisms gotten from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) microbiology laboratory. While Mueller Hinton Agar was used for testing antimicrobial susceptibilities using the disk diffusion method. The result of the study indicated that the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri was more active than that of Phyllantus amarus. The ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri showed good inhibitory properties on the bacteria: E. coli, klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococas species, Bacillus species, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa. For fungi, the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri was more active against Candida ablican and Penicilium species. Inline with the discoveries, the researcher recommends that Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri are important plants from medicinal point of view and can be potent candidates for further in vivo bioassays which could lead to the development of new drugs.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

1.1.1 Phyllantus

This is a genus of the family Euphorbiaceae. It was first identified in Central and Southern India in 18th century. It is called carry me seed, stone-breaker, wind breaker, gulf leaf flower or gala of wind, (Bharatiya 1992).

There are over 300 genera with over 5,000 species in the Euphorbiaceae world wide. The Phyllantus is one of the genus that falls under this enormous family. Phyllantus has about 750-800 species, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Green medicine is safe and more dependable than the costly synthetic drugs, many of which have adverse side effects (Joseph and Raj, 2010). The use of medicinal plants by man for the treatment of diseases has been in practice for a very long time. Screening of compounds obtained from plants for their pharmacological activity has resulted in the isolation of innumerable therapeutic agents.

Over 50% of all modern chemical drugs are of natural plant product origin and is essential in drug development programs of the pharmaceutical industry (Burton et. al 1983).

1.1.2 Phyllantus amarus (P. amarus)

P. amarus is an erect annual herb of not more than one and half feet tall and has small leaves and yellow flowers. It is a broad medicinal plant that has received world-wide recognition (Srividiya and Perival, 1995).

In herbal medicine, P. amarus has reportedly been used to treat jaundice, diabetes, otitis, diarrhea, swelling, skin ulcer, gastrointestinal disturbances and blocks DNA polymerase in the case of hepatitis B virus during reproduction, (Oluwafemi, and Debiri, 2008).

In Nigeria, it is called “Oyomokeisoamankedem” in Efik, “Iyin Olobe” in Yoruba and “Ebebenizo” in Bini (Etta, 2008). In traditional medicine, it is used for its hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti- microbial properties (Adeneye et al; 2006). The plant is also used in the treatment of stomach disorders, skin diseases and cold (Kokwaro, 1976; Iwu, 1993). It has anti-diarrhoea effect (Odetola and Akojenu, 2000). Its anti-viral activity against hepatitis B virus has been established (Thyagarajan et al; 1988, Wang et al; 1995), anti- carcinogenic (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), anti mutagenic activities (Joy and Kuttan, 1998), antiplasmodial (Soh et al. 2009).

Plants contain numerous constituents, some tend to possess some level of toxicity. Cases of this toxicity in plants have been reported (Santox et al; 1995, Shaw et al; 1997, Kaplowitz, 1997). P. amarus has been classified among plants with a low potential for toxicity, with an LD50 averaging 2000mg/kg 1day (Krithika and Verma, 2009).

1.1.3 Phyllantus niruri (P. niruri)

P. niruri is commonly called stone breaker, also known as “Chanca piedra”. It belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. P. niruri is similar to P. amarus. It is a wide spread tropical plant commonly found in coastal areas that grows 40-70cm tall (Chukwuma, 2012).

In Nigeria, it is called enyikwonwa and ngwu in Ibo, Oyokeso amanke edem in Efik, geeron- tsemtsaayee in Hausa, ehin olobe and yin-olobe in Yoruba (Chukwuma, 2012).

Although P. niruri is considered a problematic weed to formers it is a valuable medicinal plant. (Oudhia and Tripathi, 2002), and holds a reputed position in both Ayurvedic and Unani system of medicine. Recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers, because of its hepatoprotective (ability to prevent damage to the liver) properties. No effective specific therapy is available for viral Hepatitis but P. niruri has shown clinical efficiency in viral Heptatis B (Paranjape, 2001).

P. niruri is an annual plant, its stem is angular with numerous distichous, ellipticoblong leaves. Flowers are yellow and very numerous; monoecious with 1-3 staminate flowers and solitary pistillate flower borne axillary. Fruits capsule, very small, globose, smooth, seeds 3-gonous, longitudinally ribbed on the back. Seed to seed cycle occurs in two or four weeks (Caius 1986), (Agharkar 1991). Its root, leaves, fruits, milky juice and whole plants are used as medicine. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine it is considered acrid, cooling, aleixipharmic and useful in thirst, bronchitis, leprosy, anemia, urinary disharge, anuria, boiliousness, asthma, for hiccups, and as a diuretic. According to Unani system of medicine, it is stomachic and good for sores and useful in Chromic dysentery. Fruits useful for tubercular ulcers, wounds, sores, scabies and ring worm (Agharkar 1991, Krishanamurty 1993). The fresh root is believed to be an excellent remedy for jaundice.

In many parts of India, it is commonly used for the treatment of snake bite. The active compounds phyllanthin and hypophyllanthim, nirtetralin and phyltetralin have been isolated from leaves, (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1991). The plant is used as a fish poison. In many parts of India especially in deserts, the roots mixed with Commiphora mukul are given to camels to cure indigestion. The decoction of leaves and stem are used for dying cotton black, (Singh et al; 1996).

P. niruri is one of the medicinal plants used to treat malaria in India and Nigeria. P. niruri has been used traditionally to treat various illnesses including renal stones, gastrointestinal disturbance, cough, hepatitis, gonoorhea, fever and malaria. It has also been reported to posses hypoglycemic activity (Hukuri, et al; 1988), angiotension converting enzyme inhibition (Ueno, et al; 1988), lipid lowering activity (Khanna, et al; 2002), anti HIV activity (Qian cutron, et al; 1996) and anti cancer activity (Giridharan, et al; 2002).


1.2 Aim and objectives

This study is aimed at showing which of the plants above is more effective in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products present in them.

The specific objecti ves include;

  1. Determination of antibacterial effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.
  2. Determination of antifungal effect of P. amarus and P. niruri.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is Phyllantus niruri effective in treating diseases caused by E.coli?
  2. Is Phyllantus niruri leaf extract effective in treating diseases caused by klebsiella pneumoniae?
  3. Is Phyllantus niruri leaf extract effective against the streptococas species than that of Phyllantus amarus?
  4. Is Phyllantus niruri effective in fighting bacterium than Phyllantus amarus?

1.5 Scope of the Study

This study is undertaken to examine the role of plants in the treatment of diseases caused by micro-organisms based in the natural products. The study is limited to diseases caused by E.coli and klebsiella pneumoniae.


1.6 Significance of the Study

Plant is an important source of medicine and plays a key role in world health. Medicinal herbs or plants have been known to be an important potential source of therapeutics or curative aids. The use of medicinal plants has attained a commanding role in health system all over the world. This involves the use of medicinal plants not only for the treatment of diseases but also as potential material for maintaining good health and conditions, hence the need for this study.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The results or antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) study of Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri extracts indicate that the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri was more active than that of Phyllantus amarus.

The ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri showed good inhibitory properties on the bacteria: E. coli, klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococas species, Bacillus species, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa. For fungi, the ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus niruri was more active against Candida ablican and Penicilium species.

Ethenolic leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus was effective against the bacteria E. coli,Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococas species and, Staphylococcus aureus (but less effective compare to Phyllantus niruri), Bacillus species, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were resistant to the extract. For fungi, ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus was effective against Candida ablican, penicilium species and Aspergillus niger. compare to Phyllantus niruri, ethanolic leaf extract of Phyllantus amarus was more effective against Aspergillus niger.


5.2 Recommendation

It is my recommendation that Phyllantus amarus and Phyllantus niruri are important plants from medicinal point of view and can be potent candidates for further invivo bioassays which could lead to the development of new drugs.


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