Stress Management By Secretaries In The Office (A Case Study Of Banks In Owerri Municipal Local Government Area)


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Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM

Project and Seminar Material for Office Technology and Management OTM


Dedication


This project is dedicated to Almighty God for his infinite mercy towards me and also my lovely mother Mrs. Caroline ogbonna for her prayers and support. And all my lovely friends who wished me well.


Acknowledgement


First and foremost, I must remain exceeding thankful to Almighty God for granting me the grace, without which this project could not have been seen.

Secondly my sincere appreciation goes to my project supervisor Dr. Mrs. C.C Iwuoha for her uncompromising timeless effort throughout the period of this work. Her immense corporation made this work a success. I will not forget the head of this department Dr. Mrs. Nwogwugwu for her work well done, and all the staffs in the department for their various contributions to the success of my education.

I am also indebted to my caring mother mrs. Caroline Ognonna for her prayers and support. And also to my brothers and sisters, Bro. N.D, Bro. Moses and my sisterā€™s husband who through their support helped me a lot. And my sister chinwndu Ajiri and her husband and kids. Also I will not forget my lovely friend Chris Achioroaho who does act like a friend for a day but like a brother to me through his financial support and words of encouragement and lastly are my friends in the school Joy, N.K, Lillian, Blessing and Jacinta they encouraged me a lot especially when devil wanted to put his ugly hand in my education. May you all remained bless in the lord and may he replenish all your pockets in Jesus name Amen.


Abstract


The nature and scope of this determine the causes of stress management by secretariat in the office and other workers and the techniques used to manage to manage and reduce stress. This study is significance in ensuring that secretaries and other workers appreciated the used to manage stress the study is also significant in its output at bringing the techniques and strategies a secretary used mostly to manage the boss to prove good relationship and work effectiveness.

To direct the study five research questions were stimulated, the research was carried out using a sample of fourty(40) male and female secretaries of five(5) business establishments located in Owerri urban of imo state. The main instruments used in the data collection was the questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using frequency count and

From the analysis of the data collected, it revealed that a lot of stress is encountered about an effective secretary damns stress as a result of stress management techniques.


Chapter One


Introduction

Introduction:stress is the result of planning undue expectations or desire on ourselves, creating images of ourselves and trying and trying to live up to the image that has been created by others.


The Origin Of Stress.

The term stress was firstly employed by a biological context by the endocrinologist Han selve in the 1930s.he later broaded and concept to include inadequate physiological response to any demand. In his usage stress refers to a condition and stress on the stimulus causing it.

Imagine that you just brought out your dream car.it is the Juguman. You have scraped everything you have to buy it you wanted to take it for a spin. It is a sunny spring day you turned the streo on, the top down and cruise merily on the interstate, isnā€™t life wonderful? You suddenly scratching noise at the front. The drivers at your front of you are all slamming on their brakes.

You see that each car is coming is coming within split second of near ending the one in front. Within seconds the stress of the situation enters you mind through your eyes and ears. Your mind or brain immediately takes over before you can even say Oh NO! not my new car! The middle and the lower part of your brain electrically trigger a massive fight on slight response. Your legs slan on the brake, you grip the steering wheel and try to straighten it.
The origin of stress may vary with the individual, but in general stress arises from frustration, lite changes, conflict lack of control and uncertainty.

In this difficult economy, many of us (secretratries) are findings it hanader than ever to cope with stress in the workplace. Regardless of occupation, seniority or salary level, were spending more and moreof our work days feeling frazzled and out of the control instead of alert and relaxed. While some stress is a normal of part of the workplace excessive stress can interfere with your productivity and reduce your physical and emotional health.

Findings ways to manage workplace stress is not about making huge changes to every aspect of your work lite or rethinking carrier ambitions. Rather, stress management requires focus on the one thing that is always within your control.


Background Of The Study

During the course of our duty as a secretary, we encounter stress, some in high levels some in low. But what exactly is stress? It is the result of placing undue expectations or desire on ourselves, creating images of oursett and trying to live up to the image that that has been cretaded by others.

When we compare the image of ourselves, opposing forces are created, and our mind tries to match the created image with the current situation. Stress can be made worse by other peoples expectations, and being human we always care what others think of us even though we tell ourselves that we do not. we try to change ourselves so that we can be accepted by other people, regardless of whether or not they care. Negative thoughts about our self image also add to the stress. We remember everything that we have done in life, but more so the negative ones. We re-live those negative moments over and over again in our minds, lowering our self esteem.

The first thing we have to learn is that what has happened in the past cannot be changed, or erased. , learn not to de the lesson we learnt it again. What happens in the past is exactly that, passed, and we must learnt to live for now.
In this difficult economy, many of us (secrefries) are finding it harder than ever to cope with stress in the workplace.

Regardless of occupation, seniority, or salary level, were spending more and more of our work days feeling trazzled and out of control, instead of alert and relaxed. While some stress is a normal part of the workplace, excessive stress can interfere with your productivity and reduce your physical and emotional health. Finding ways to manage workplace stress is not about making huge changes to every aspect of your work life or rethinking career ambitions.

Rather, stress management requires focus on the one thing thatā€™s always within your control. According to Dale (2007), yet many thinks stress is an emotional sickness and as one that has caused ten thousand times more damage than small pox has not invited government attention. Certain percentage of the population has herrous breakdown induced by stress and emotional conflict which is posing critical challenges to the secretary. Therefore a secretary has to develop a better attitude towards stress to function effectively. According to Dr Alexis Carrel puts it rightly ā€œBusiness men who do not know how to manage stress suffers depression, anger, etc.

The trend nowadays is towards acquisition of knowledge and techniques to managing stress to improve work efficiency and good report in offices. According to Amadi et al (2008), in facing challenges, a secretary has to be tactful, posses initiative, cooperative, intelligent and dependable among other things.

Therefore, the secretary has to accept whatever demand that comes from the boss with all amount of happiness to improve the relationship.

Furthermore, stress management has to do with adjective demand that requires coping behaviour such as building resistance, keeping work and non-work life separates, getting exercises and taking things through with on-the-job peers.

Anyim and Akanwa (2008), it is in the light of the above that the research wishes to investigate the various ways of managing stress.


Purpose Of The Study:

The study is sought to determine the cause of stress to a secretary in the office. The case of Bnaks in Owerri Municipal L.G.A.

It specifically sought to

  1. Identify major causes of stress to a secretary.
  2. Recognize signs of excessive stress
  3. Identify the skills needed to manage stress
  4. Identify various ways or techniques to maximize stress.
  5. Identify how secretaries can reduce job stress.

Significance Of The Study

Research studies in managing stress is essentially of the hope that the research would arrive at the objective information that would furnish the secretaries, bosses and the students etc on the nest to manage stress. The finding of the study will be of importance to office mangers, secretaries, students and all employer or labour as it would inform them on various ways of managing stress to improve work efficiency.

The study is also significant in its attempt to bringing the techniques a secretary needs mostly to manage the boss to improve work effectiveness and good relationship.

The findings would be beneficial to future secretaries, bosses, government, tertiary institutions and the entire society.

Finally, the study of this nature would be of importance to the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), colleges, Polthenics, Universities, Student researcher offering office technology/management as a course or carry out research work on the problem.


Research Questions

The following research questions were asked in order to guide the study.

  1. What are the effects of stress on health?
  2. What can stress adversely affect work effectiviency?
  3. What are the ways of managing stress?
  4. How best can a secretary mange stress to improve relationship in the office?

Scope Of The Study

The study covers effect and management of stress by the secretary in the office. Stress management in the home is not included.


Definitions Of Terms

Every protession has its own jagons, to avoid technical ambiquities, therefore, it would be necessary to define some terms, concepts that appear in the study.

Stress:

Moorhead and crittin (2009) defined stress as a personā€™s adaptive response to a stimulus that places excessive psychological or physical demands on him or her. Ekpo (2007) defines stress like, emotions caused by a particular environemt but is an inner response aronsed by pleasant or unpleasant situation in any environment. According to new advanced learners Dictionary defines stress as pressure, tension or worry resulting from problems in oneā€™s life.

Secretary:

According to Ohakwe (2007), a secretary is an assistant who possess a mastery of office skill, demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without direct surpervision, exercise initiative and judgement and makes decisions within the scope of assigned authority.

Office:

According aĀ Wikipedia an office is generally a room or other area in which people work, but may also denote a position within an organization with specific duties attched to it.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


šŸ“©How to get the complete material


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You donā€™t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. Itā€™s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesnā€™t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say ā€œwow, thatā€™s beautifulā€ or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and financeĀ project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administrationĀ project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in oneā€™s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the studentā€™s topic. A studentā€™s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of theĀ research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size,Ā data collection methods,Ā measurement instruments,Ā research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.Ā Ā This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work.Ā There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, theĀ results of each analysis is beingĀ summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.Ā Ā Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.Ā Ā In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.Ā  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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