The Challenges Of Office Management Technology Profession In The Modern Technological Era
This research is focused on the challenges of OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY profession in the modern technological era. The main purpose of this research was to find out the OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY profession, the teaching and learning of internet skills, the teaching and learning of Management information skills, the teaching and learning of data processing skills.
Four research questions were formulated and questionnaires were used to obtain data from the population of 60. From the data analysis the following findings were made: that modern Technology plays important role in the OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY profession in polytechnics, that the the challenges of OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY profession in the modern technological era include acquisition of new ideas, helps in training of students in distance areas, provide teachers with current teaching aids among others.
That modern Technology helps in the teaching and learning creation of document, storage of document, retrieval of document, disposal of document and protection of document, all these are the challenges of modern Technology in Information Management system. That the challenges of modern Technology in the teaching and learning of data processing skills includes; the teaching and learning of calculation skills, sorting of data, classification of data, recording of data and the teaching and learning of storing of data.
1.1 Background of the Study
The modern technology and Economic development in recent years have affected to a large extent the functions and performance of the OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY profession. Consequently, there arise the need for development of improved devices for the purpose of increasing productivity levels, to make work less tedious. The history of the secretarial revolution of the 14th to 16th centuries. Record keeping and inventions of Manu scripting were first developed. When it becomes imperative that these two innovations could not provide a complete answer to smooth take off of business and full office operations, further inventions were made giving birth to the art of typing with machines.
The invention of the typewriter and its uses in the office were almost revolutionarizin their useful to business application. Work could be done more quickly, more legibly, more accurately and more economically. But the expansion of business activities demand for more and better skill and experienced personnel. The invention of the typewriter was followed by adding and calculating machines, cash register and book-keeping machines.
The office today has changed largely due to technical advances, new business procedures and concepts and international movement.
The use of new machines like computers, fax, machines, electric typewriters, word processing etc has generated new skills and new job opportunities.
These have posed a lot of challenges to the OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession.
Some OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession cannot operate these electronic gadgets and other modern equipment. In a research carried out by Okoye (1992:48), it was discovered that “graduate OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession were rated so low in their abilities to operate such equipments. Their knowledge and shorthand was appreciated but surprisingly, these OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession could only exhibit a faint knowledge of the mechanism of the copiers and duplicating machines.
Added to this, most OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Professionhave problems in their work places because of lack skill needed to operate these machines. Lockhart (1991) as cited by Osagie (1992:110) stated that the whole role of typist changed by the impact of new technology. This could mean that the secretarial studies in which we are much involved may need a re0examination with more emphasis on the administrative role of office personnel and fresh look at the whole activities of office management.
Whistler (1970:38) opined that in a recent study of life 15 insurance companies were conducted to determine employment changes at various job levels as a result of automation. These companies believed that without the use of computer that they would need 60% more personnel. In effect, while there may not be (and probably is not) a reduced number of office employees, more work is now being done with electronic machines, than ever before.
For some industries, the installation of computer has hardly affected the total unemployment picture, on the contrarty, new skills have been required. In many companies the rate if turnover among office employees continues to hogh with the result that proposed, reductions in manpower requirements are compensated by moral attrition (Neuner et al, 1972:36 –37)
Further, in an economic and statistical analysis conducted by fortune magazine as cited by Neuner et al (1972:36-37), it was emphatically concluded that automation has made substantially less headway in the United Sates of America economy than the literature on the subject would suggest. Not denying that fact that technology does change and does displace a substantial number of workers, it was noted that ten years after computers have come into common use no fully automated process exists for any major project in any industry in the united states.
With the introduction of automation, an organization stands to gain among others, increased production, efficiency of work and low labor turnover and improved secretarial performance.
This study is therefore geared towards finding out the challenges of automation on the effectiveness of OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession in financial houses in Enugu North Local Government Area
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is not clear what effect modern Technology has on OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession. While the impression is that the introduction of automation in teaching and learning appear to be a blessing to its users, OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession who had not up-dated their skills fear that it would replace them. Is that a genuine fear? if an automated office would effectively replace the secretary, how soon would that happen? Much is observed today about the changing office scene. Although many views are expressed concerning this subject, it is widely acknowledged that the future office operations and procedures are quite different from the ones the OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Professionare accustomed to. For instance, Olusegun (1991:5) opined that, in a meeting, fear were expressed that another 10 years there might be nothing left for the workers to do since automation and technology might have become so improved that machines begin to operate themselves. While Stouter (1983:28) stressed that sophisticated equipment will never be able to replace the creative, articulate thinking of human being. What equipment can do is to assume the responsibilities for the more repetition o, routine part of office jobs.
Are toady’s secretary’s training programmes designed to accommodate the ever changing job demands to enable her cope effectively with them. These views are more guesses which have not been subjected to scientific study. Hence, this work, “An Investigation into Challenges on modern Automation on the Effectiveness of OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession in Enugu North Local Government Area” is an attempt to find out the challenges of modern Technology on OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purposes of this study are
- To ascertain whether modern Technology pose challenges to secretarial performance and productivity.
- To determine whether OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession who have no previous experience and skill in the manipulation of modern Technology encountered problems
- To find out whether OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession who are provided opportunities for training and retraining programes so as to meet challenges in modern Technology.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will provide a research based information on the current notion-wide argument on the challenges of modern Technology to secretarial performance and productivity.
It will also be useful as it would show the adequacies or inadequacies to present day OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Professionviz-a-viz the manipulation of modern Technology.
Again, the study would be useful to organization and OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession as it will reveal the training and retraining programmes that are available to meeting these challenges and hence facilitate the realization of set organizational goals.
1.5 Research Questions
In a bid to achieve the objective mention above, the researcher sought answers to the following questions.
- Do modern Technology pose challenges to secretarial performance and productivity
- Do OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession who had no previous experience skill in the manipulation of modern Technology have challenges
- Are OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession exposed to training and retraining in order to meet the challenges of modern Technology.
1.6 Definition of Terms
The handling of data entirely by machine from the collection of the data to the production of the output data (Edum et al, 1996:145)
An act of duplicating anything written, drawn or typed and transmitted between two distant points (Appleby, 1969:357)
An office machine with which office data is electronically processed at appreciable speed. (Elendu, 1988:118)
The researcher encountered some constraints. The study was carried out among OFFICE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY Profession in finance houses in Enugu North Local Government Area.
Also the researcher hold limited time and financial constraints which made the research work to be limited to only the area of coverage..
Again question of having identity card (ID) bearing the name of the school and showing that the person is a student made it more difficult for one to the libraries to collect more data.
This study covers five selected financial houses in Enugu North Local Government Area. These are First Bank of Nigeria PLC, Central Bank of Nigeria PLC, United Bank of Nigeria PLC, Afribank of Nigeria PLC, Union Bank of Nigeria PLC.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one of the thesis discusses the overview of the study, problem definition, research question, research objectives, significance of the study. Chapter two presents all the relevant literature review on waste management and its related concepts. Chapter three addresses the identification of the most suitable research methodology for this research and chapter four presents a data analysis of findings gathered from the field. Finally, chapter five presents the summary of findings, conclusion, and made relevant recommendations.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of the Study
The primary purpose of this study is to examine the challenges of office management in the modern office era. Other secondary objectives guided the collection of primary data. A review of existing literature on the subject of Secretarial practices as well as productivity was presented in chapter two. This review explored important issues relating to the concept of office manager, the classification of the functions of the office manager and the secretarial productivity. Beside the secondary data, a primary data was gathered through the use of questionnaires from the sampled population selected for this study. A total of 60 respondents contributed to the findings of this study.
5.2 Conclusions of the Study
In line with the objectives of the study and the data gathered from chapter four, the following conclusions have been reached;
- Banks have sufficient modern office equipment and technologies
- There is a high level of usage of these equipments at the banks
- The use of modern office equipment increase productivity of secretarial staff
- The secretarial staff believe they are highly productive.
5.3.1 Consistent Monitoring and Evaluation of the Supply Chain Performance Indicators
Monitoring is the routine and systematic accumulation of information against a plan. The information might be about activities, products or services, users, or about outside factors affecting the organization or project. Evaluation on the other hand is about utilizing monitoring and other information you accumulate to make judgments about the value of any component part of an organization or its projects, products, services or benefits, or about the organization holistically. It is also about utilizing the information to make changes and ameliorations.
Organizations use monitoring and evaluation for to learn about their own activities and results, and to fortify internal plan and development and be accountable to their stakeholders. Generally, organizations undertake two types of monitoring activities to understand how the organization is performing and to identify those areas which require further attention. The two types of monitoring activities are performance monitoring and compliance monitoring.
Performance monitoring involves an in-depth analysis of a process or project, to determine whether it is efficient and efficacious. It involves developing criteria, conducting interviews and examining documentation to determine how the process or project is conducted. Additionally, Compliance monitoring and compliance auditing aim to establish whether a process or procedure is carried out in conformance with pertinent external requisites, whether set through legislation, regulations or directions.
Although there exist high levels of productivity among the secretarial staff at the banks, the business environment has become very competitive and there is no place for firms who relax on the past glory. The secretarial staff department must constantly be made to review their system to discover weaknesses that can quickly be addressed to meet customer satisfaction.
5.3.2 Continuous Staff training in the use of Modern Equipments’
A learning organization where the members are continually gaining knowledge and enhancing their capabilities to aid the organization in adapting to dynamic environments and remain competitively superior over competitors .
The driving force behind such an organization is its ability to effectively manage knowledge. The secretarial staff at the banks must constantly be trained to become their very best. The Ministry must invest in continuous training.
5.3.3 Continuous Investment in Modern Office Equipment and Technologies
To maintain a strong competitive advantage and customer satisfaction, the ministry be continually invest in the acquisition of the latest equipments that would enhance the productivity of its staff. For example, the study reveals a lack of video conferencing equipments, and these must be purchased to reduce travelling and promote technological advancement at the banks.
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