Factors That Affect Performance Of Secretarial Career In Ambrose Ali University

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Factors That Affect Performance Of Secretarial Career In Ambrose Ali University


Abstract


The study investigated factors that affect performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University, Edo state. Descriptive survey design was adopted for this study and the population consisted of secretaries from in Ambrose Ali University, Edo state. Taro Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size of one hundred and eighty-eight (188) secretaries. Four research questions were answered and four (4) hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Questionnaire was used for data collection for the study. The instrument was validated and a reliability index of 0.84 was obtained using test-retest method. Data were analysed using mean, standard deviation and frequency while t-test statistical tool was used to test the null hypotheses. Evidences from the findings and discussion of this study revealed that work overload affects job performance of secretaries to a high extent. Findings also revealed that skill gap influences job performance of secretaries to a high extent. Furthermore, it was revealed that work-family conflict and positive work environment had no influence on the job performance of secretaries in Ambrose Ali University, Edo State. The study confirmed that when married male and female secretaries are provided with the same factors their job performance would almost be the same. It was therefore recommended amongst other things that secretaries should be trained and retrained regularly to update their digital skills.

 


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Stress and Secretary job Performance
  • 2.3 Concept of Occupational Stress
  • 2.4 Concept of Secretary
  • 2.5 Concept of Secretaries’ Job Performance
  • 2.6 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Population and Sampling
  • 3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
  • 3.5 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The word secretary is derived from the Latin Word “Secretus” which liberally means secret. According to John Harrison a secretary is an executive assistance or anyone who acts as a personal assistant to a senior executive. Oxford Dictionary defines as secretary as an employee in an office who deals with correspondence. Keeps records make arrangements and opportunities for a particular member of the staff. Azuka E.B defines it as a person employed by another person, society or corporation for the purpose of conducting correspondence. Keeping business records and transacting business.

The National Secretaries Association defines a secretary as an assistance to an executive possessing mastery of office skills with ability to assume responsibilities without direct supervisions who displays initiative, exercises sense of judgment and who takes decisions within the scope of assigned authority

Another school thought says that a secretary is a person who maintains high standard of confidentiality, a repository of information.

On the other hand, private organization can be defined as the management of an organization by individuals, such as are profit orientated and are taken care of by the individuals.

Some Responsibilities of Secretaries are

  1. Treating of mails
  2. Answering of phone, she receives and answers the telephone
  3. Making travel arrangements
  4. Receives visitors in the office
  5. She arranges for meeting
  6. Supervision of junior staff
  7. Keeping a desk diary both for herself and her boss.
  8. Miscellaneous functions is operation of office machines.

The secretary is the alter ego of the executive. She is also seen as the life wire of the organization. All these notwithstanding, evidence on the ground has pointed out some factors that results to ineffectiveness ion work of secretaries. The ineffectiveness of secretaries can diminish the efficiency of the organization concerned. These inefficiencies were traced back to lack of good human relation insufficient office equipment lack of job satisfaction and low pay levels.

The contributions and effectiveness of a secretary can either enhance or diminish the efficiency of a private organization. It has been observed that secretaries in private organizations performs below expectation of the bosses and their poor performance could be attributed to certain conditions or factors. Generally, evidence of inefficiency is seen in their attitude towards their work

It was suggested by Oklo Angele N. that certain number of factors were responsible for this. They include poor salary, lack of human relations, lack of interest in their work, poor working condition, inadequate equipment unattractive fringe benefits, lack of job satisfactions. Therefore, the responsibilities emulated cannot be fully actualized

In addition to these, Onwuka L.I suggested that some secretaries in private organization are quitting their jobs, which now resulted into lack of competent secretaries. Other are not fully committed due to much engagement like part time work in order to make both ends meet.In view of the deteriorations state of private organization in Nigeria, this study is therefore designed to identify the factors that affect the performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University.


1.2 Statement 0f the Problem

A positive work environment is productive, rewarding, enjoyable and healthy for everyone concerned, that is, the executives, employees and customers. It is disheartening however, that many executives do not create positive work environment for their secretaries despite the fact that the secretaries are the life wire of the organization. Such executives tend to make the office a prison yard for their secretaries. Lack of conducive work environment affects the morale of secretaries and it leads to negativity of job performance. Secretaries (either married male or female) who work in an unfriendly environment will not perform their best.

Having said this, the factors which influence male and female secretaries’ job performance are difficult to come by. Consequently, the concern of the researcher is to establish those factors that affect the performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The aim of the study was to identify the factors that affect the performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University, Edo state. Specifically, this study sees to;

  1. Find out the extent to which work overload affect job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University.
  2. Determine the extent to which skill gap influence job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University.
  3. Establish whether work-family conflicts influence the performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University.
  4. Determine whether positive work environment influences the performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University.

1.4 Research Questions

This study seeks toanswer the following research questions;

  1. To what extent does work overload affect job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University?
  2. To what extent does skill gap influence job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University?
  3. Do work-family conflicts influence the performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University?
  4. Does positive work environment influence the performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University?

1.5 Hypotheses

HO1: There is no significant influence ofwork overload on job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University, Edo state.

HO2: There is no significant influence ofskill gap on job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University, Edo state.

HO3: There is no significant influence ofwork-family conflicts on job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University, Edo state.

HO4: There is no significant influence ofwork environment on job performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University, Edo state.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The importance of the investigation into factors that influence the performance of secretaries in private organizations will help to find out the factors that result to ineffectiveness and inefficiency of secretaries.

The research will enable the organization or the employers of labor to know how to relate with their secretaries.

The findings of the study will help the secretaries to be interested and proud of their jobs seeing alternative fringe benefits around which brings about job satisfactions

In addition to these, this research will also assist future researchers in the factors that influences the performance of secretaries in private organization.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Secretary:

A person employed by an individual or in an office to assist with correspondence, make appointments, and carry out administrative tasks.

Career:

An occupation undertaken for a significant period of a person’s life and with opportunities for progress.

Factors:

A circumstance, fact, or influence that contributes to a result. In this study, they include work overload, skill gap, work-family conflicts, and work environment.

Job Performance:

Assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studied academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology, also forms a part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success.


1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study was carried out to identify the factors that affect performance of secretarial career in Ambrose Ali University, Edo State. The study made use of descriptive survey design and a questionnaire for data collection. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and cumulative frequency were used for the study. Evidences from the findings and discussion of this study revealed that work overload affects job performance of secretaries to a high extent. Findings also revealed that skill gap influences job performance of secretaries to a high extent. Furthermore, it was revealed that work-family conflict and positive work environment had no influence on the job performance of secretaries in Ambrose Ali University, Edo State. The study confirmed that when married male and female secretaries are provided with the same factors their job performance would almost be the same.


5.2 Conclusion

It was concluded that stress is an inherent factor in any type of vocation or career. At its best, the pressure of stress can be a motivator that urges an individual to strive for excellence. However, the excess amount of stress can lead to low productivity, loss of confidence and inability to perform routine tasks. This study also concluded that occupational stress affect secretaries’ job performance to a high extent.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Secretaries should be trained and retrained regularly to update their digital skills.
  2. Secretaries should engage themselves in regular exercise and other stress reduction techniques.
  3. Management should engage their secretaries in stress management programmes as stress is inevitable in secretaries’ day to day activities.
  4. Government should employ more secretaries to avoid work overload which is one of the major sources of occupational stress.

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