A Seminar Report On Street Light Installation

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

A Seminar Report On Street Light Installation


Abstract


Illumination of streets at night is a very important concern in society, as this could go a long way to prevent, or curtail to a large extent the rate of crime during dark hours. Although it has a strategic importance for the economic and social stability of a developing country, the amount of energy that is consumed by the streetlight systems is large. Ten to thirty per cent (10 to 30%) of the total energy supplied in a country is consumed by streetlight system. Street lights are heavily dependent on energy whose costs run into billions of dollars annually. The great consumption rate is mainly due to the primitive form the streetlight systems take, they tend to have a single controlling source, ON and OFF with a single light intensity (full beam) when turned ON, and are left fully ON all through the night. These features do not give room for flexibility of control leading to great energy waste. On a number of occasions these street lights are left ON during the day too, increasing the amount of energy consumed due to manual operators. The problems of Nigeria’s power sector are numerous, with increasing power tariffs and frequent power cuts and exorbitant bills. The total amount of electricity generated in Nigeria is less than 6GW. It is therefore not possible to use even 15% of this generated energy; diesel generators are therefore used to power the street lights increasing the Carbon footprint. Hence this paper gives insight as much as possible into an alternative but steady source of power. Solar electricity is one possible way to overcome the erratic power supply by installing solar streetlights. Using the University of Nigeria as a case study that uses conventional lamps for lightning requirements this work discusses the current energy consumption rate of the streetlight system compared with the amount of energy generated. It is estimated that the University consumes about 350,000KWh of energy annually on streetlights alone with an annual cost of about N 9 million, roughly $30,000. An energy efficient system that maximizes the solar potential by using solar powered LED (Light Emitting Diode) street lights, introducing sensors to turn the lights ON and OFF; reducing the illumination by as much as 40% by introducing motion sensors is therefore proposed. By partitioning the University into sectors, the number of panels and battery storage is also reduced considerably making the system more economical. This system has a twofold advantage, reducing the cost to the University as well as exploit the renewable energy available thereby reducing the Carbon footprint.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Two wide-ranging trends in society today are urbanization and consciousness of sustainable development. The urban areas grow larger which requires new technical solutions for the urban infrastructures to be energy efficient. One such important system is street lighting. More street lighting is needed to satisfy the extended networks of roads and walkways, and many street lights are outdated and need to be replaced. According to Ożadowicz and Grela (2015) and other previous studies, street lighting is one of the largest electrical energy consumers and accounts for almost 40% of the total electrical energy consumption in cities. This part of the city infrastructure is therefore a part which is possible for the municipalities to improve and thereby save both energy and money.

Street lighting installations are also, except energy consuming, crucial in terms of comfort and safety because they provide lighting for roads, streets, public areas, pavements etcetera (Ożadowicz and Grela 2015). Lighting has a large importance as an urban environment creator and one of its most significant function is to give people guidance, help to orientate and provide safety. Out on the streets is where people meet and an inviting lighting inspire people to stay outdoors, which in turn makes the city safe.

The technical shaping of the armatures, for example the efficiency of the light, has a large impact on both the operational cost and sustainability of street lights (Uppsala municipality 2014a). The lighting sector has gone through a substantial transformation in recent years because of the need for low-cost and durable armatures, and one large innovation that enabled this revolution is the Light Emitting Diode (LED). LED lights have a higher efficiency and longer lifetime than the traditional high pressure sodium lamps (HPS) (International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics 2015). Therefore, the LED armatures reduce the costs of maintenance and operation. The white light from a LED light is also an advantage from a safety and comfort perspective because it makes it easier to see colours and details. Another beneficial technique to reduce the energy consumption is the usage of a smart street light control system. The smart control system enables regulation and supervision in the street light network, since it is possible to adjust the light intensity and see when an armature needs maintenance in the system software. (Philips 2015)

Street lighting it is a very important and energy-intensive element of infrastructure in modern cities. According to street lighting energy consumption accounting for almost 40% of the total energy consumption in cities. This puts a lot of pressure on the electric energy supply and impacts the environmental protection. Apart from being costly, street lights contribute to environment pollution. The production of electricity needed to power street lighting systems, adds to carbon dioxide emissions (CO2, greenhouse gas) and nuclear dust. These factors also have a negative influence on the environment, impacting plants, animals, and people’s habits. It is for those reasons that it is important and useful to propose some technical solutions to control and monitor the street lamps, reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency of the street lighting systems.


1.2 Statement Of Problem

Streetlights are an essential aspect of the security sector, as they provide illumination and safety for vehicles and pedestrians throughout the night (Ballar& Wong, 2015). Although it has strategic importance for the economic and social stability of a developing country, the amount of energy that is consumed by the streetlight systems is large. Ten to thirty per cent (10 to 30%) of the total energy supplied in a country is consumed by streetlight system (Priyanka &Baskara 2015), (Popa&Marcu 2012). The great consumption rate is due to the primitive form the streetlight systems take. The streetlights tend to have a single controlling source, ON and OFF with a single light intensity (full beam) when turned on, and are left fully ON all through the night. These features do not give room for flexibility of control leading to great energy waste. This work discusses the current energy consumption rate of the streetlight system compared with the amount of energy generated; giving a design that would improve the streetlight systems by greatly reducing the energy consumption rate by the streetlight system. The design is done using University of Nigeria, Nsukka as a case study by proposing a sustainable energy efficient solar street light system.


1.3 Aims And Objectives

The main aim of this study is to propose a sustainable energy efficient solar street light system and assess street light installation using University of Nigeria, Nsukka.


Last Chapter


Summary And Conclusion

Summary

The proposed energy efficient streetlight system is geared towards reducing the energy requirement by streetlights and also optimizing energy utilization. In this work, the existing streetlight systems were reviewed, using University of Nigeria, Nsukka as a case study. This study covered the type of bulbs used in the streetlights, the kind of energy source for the streetlight system, and other modifications in design, such as integration of sensing and control elements into the streetlight system, to make it smart and highly energy efficient.

The large energy consumption and cost accruing to streetlights in the region under study was discussed. The foremost design modification is the replacement of the currently used CFL lamps with energy efficient light bulbs, specifically 30W LED bulbs. This alone cuts the streetlight energy consumption to 25% of the initial figure. A solar-powered standalone design was considered, which had the disadvantage of leaving huge amount of installed energy capacity unutilized.


Conclusion

The proposed design is a smart solar-powered streetlight system in which several streetlights are powered and controlled from one solar station. The university area was demarcated into ten regions, each containing a number of streetlights (60-80 streetlights per region). Each generating station has ten 250W solar panels, an 80A MPPT charge controller, twelve 12V 200AH batteries, and a control system. The control circuit comprises a light dependent resistor (LDR), to sense when the brightness of the environment is low. Each streetlight has a motion sensor installed on it to sense movement around the streetlight. The streetlights come on at 20% luminance once the LDR senses low brightness. When any motion is detected by the motion sensor of a particular streetlight, that streetlight rises to 100% luminance.

The smart solar-powered streetlight system finds application wherever there is enough reliable sunlight to run it. It is a highly energy efficient system and also very effective, as illumination and security of the region is enhanced at reduced energy consumption and cost. The regional generating stations provide for optimal energy utilization as opposed to standalone solar streetlight system. The proposed design also proves very suitable for areas with epileptic power supply from grid, such as the region used as case study, as well as several other areas in Nigeria and other developing countries.


A Seminar Report On Street Light Installation


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