Design And Construction Of A Wireless Temperature Telemetry Device
This project describes the development of a wireless temperature telemetry device with the use of a programmed microcontroller, temperature sensor, RF transmitter and receiver and LCD for display as basic elements. The project is divided into two parts: the transmitter part and the receiver part.
In the transmitter part the temperature sensor measures temperature and then gives an output voltage corresponding to the sensed temperature (10mv/oC), the programmed microcontroller (Atmega328p) in this part then converts the analog signal received to digital signal through its ADC and then sends it through the RF transmitter connected to it to the receiver part of the circuit.
In the receiver part of the circuit the digital signal is then received by the RF receiver and sent to the microcontroller connected to it, the signal value is the displayed on an LCD.
This device can be used to monitor the temperature in extreme, remote locations. It can also be used in industries to monitor the temperature of rotary bodies as well as many more temperature measurement uses.
List of Figures
- Fig. 2.1 9v battery
- Fig. 2.2 7805 voltage regulator
- Fig. 2.3 LM35DZ temperature sensor
- Fig. 2.4 Basic centigrade temperature sensor
- Fig. 2.5 LM35DZ pin out diagram
- Fig. 2.6 Atmega328p
- Fig. 2.7 Pin description of the Atmega328p
- Fig. 2.8 Block diagram for RF transmission and reception
- Fig. 2.9 RF Transmitter
- Fig. 2.10 RF Receiver
- Fig. 2.11 Liquid Crystal Display Module
- Fig. 2.12 Pin description of the LCD module
- Fig. 2.13 Arduino Uno Microcontroller
- Fig. 2.14 Arduino IDE
- Fig. 3.1 Block diagram of a wireless temperature telemetry device
- Fig. 3.2 Transmitter circuit diagram
- Fig. 3.3 Receiver circuit diagram
- Fig. 3.4 Circuit diagram for the dc power supply and regulation unit
- Fig. 3.5 Circuit diagram for the temperature sensor
- Fig. 3.6 Circuit diagram for the microcontroller unit
- Fig. 3.7 Atmega328p pin configuration
- Fig. 3.8 Circuit diagram for the RF transmitter
- Fig. 3.9 Circuit diagram for the RF receiver
- Fig. 3.10 Circuit diagram for the LCD module
- Fig. 4.1 Working device on breadboard.
- Fig. 4.2 Soldered transmitter on Vero board.
- Fig. 4.3 Soldered receiver on Vero board.
- Fig. 4.4 Working wireless temperature telemetry device.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- List of Figures
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background
- 1.2 Overview of the Project Work
- 1.3 Problem Statement
- 1.4 Project Aim
- 1.5 Project Objectives
- 1.6 Methodology
- 1.7 Thesis Outline
- 2.1 Historical Background
- 2.2 Operation of the Circuit Components
- 2.3 Description of the Used Parts
- 2.3.1 Power Supply Unit
- 2.3.2 Voltage Regulator
- 2.3.3 Temperature Sensor
- 2.3.4 Atmega328P
- 2.3.5 Radio Frequency (RF) Modules
- 126.96.36.199 RF Transmitter
- 188.8.131.52 RF Receiver
- 2.3.6 LCD Module
- 2.3.7 Arduino Uno Revision 3
Design Analysis and Specifications
- 3.1 Introduction and Circuit Analysis
- 3.2 Calculations And Design Analysis
- 3.2.1 Dc Power Supply and Voltage Regulation Unit
- 3.2.2 Temperature Sensing Unit
- 3.2.3 Microcontroller Unit
- 3.2.4 RF Transmission and Reception Unit
- 3.2.5 LCD Module
Construction and Testing
- 4.1 Material Survey
- 4.2 Construction Materials
- 4.3 Construction Procedure
- 4.4 Testing
- 4.5 General Precautions
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
- Appendix A: Bill Of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation
- Appendix B
- Source Code for Transmitter Microcontroller
- Source Code for Receiver Microcontroller
Temperature has been discovered to be the second most measured physical quantity, time been the First. This shows the need to measure temperature is very necessary, the measurement thus has to be efficient and convenient.
Years back, crude methods were used in measurement of temperature of objects, colours and hotness of materials were used in temperature measurement for example colour red i.e., redness of material means it is hot. But this was not enough to measure the degree of hotness especially when you need to heat a particular material to a certain temperature.
The need to assign values to temperature measurement led to the invention of the conventional mercury thermometer, though this method was widely accepted then, it was indirect and measurement was prone to errors.
The need for accuracy and precision in measurement led to the digital thermometer, which is more accurate and helps eliminate parallax error during measurement. In this information era where the wired and wireless technology applications is widely used by lots of industries and hobbyists, group of experts make a research on how to implement the use of these technologies in monitoring the temperature in a more precise and reliable way.
Telemetry can be described as a highly automated communications process that involves the collection of measurements and other data at remote or inaccessible points prior to transmission to receiving equipment for monitoring and control purposes. The word telemetry is usually associated with wireless methods.
Temperature telemetry is therefore the measurement of temperature of substances, things, physically inaccessible locations, and transferring the measured temperature value to a desired or more accessible location.
1.2 Overview of the Project Work
As we know, radio frequencies refer to the frequencies that fall within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When applied to an antenna, RF current creates electromagnetic fields that propagate the applied signal through space. Any RF field has a wavelength that is inversely proportional to the frequency and this means that the frequency of an RF signal is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the field.
It goes the same with this project that used the application of radio frequencies by using RF transmitter and RF receiver to monitor the temperature of object under test.
The temperature of the object under test is sensed by an analogue temperature sensor IC (LM35DZ) and temperature is converted into equivalent voltage (which is about 0.01V/˚C) by the IC and it is in turn sent to the programmed ATMEGA328 microprocessor which processes the signal data and sends it to the remote end through the RF transmitter. At the remote end, the RF receiver collects the data and converts it into equivalent voltage and sends it to the programmed ATMEGA328 at the receiver side which does the analogue to digital conversion (ADC conversion), and the digital signal is sent to the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) for measurement display.
1.3 Problem Statement
The project aims at addressing the following problems
- Measurement of bodies that are in motion is hectic.
- Measuring in extreme environments is problematic e.g., environment with poisonous gases.
- Remote non-assessable areas measurement isn’t easy.
1.4 Project Aim
The aim of the project is to design and construct a device which will measure temperature of an object, and transmit the data wirelessly over a distance to a place where the data is needed to be viewed on a Liquid Crystal Display.
1.5 Project Objectives
The objectives of this project are listed below
- To sense/measure the temperature of an object.
- To convert the temperature to an equivalent electrical signal.
- To transmit the signal wirelessly to a receiver.
- To receive the signal wirelessly from the transmitter.
- To convert the signal back to corresponding temperature values.
- To view the value on LCD.
In order to achieve the objectives of the project work, the following steps will taken
- Design of a suitable and practical circuit diagram, block diagram.
- Learning how to program an embedded system using C language.
- Develop the codes for the project work.
- Components and parts identification/specification/procurements.
- Design and analysis of stages on breadboard.
- Development of Vero board layout diagram of circuit.
- Assembling and construction.
- Test, analyse and diagnose fault in the circuit.
- Packaging of project.
- Preparation and presentation of technical report.
1.7 Thesis Outline
This project is comprised of five chapters and the outline for each chapter is listed below:
- Chapter One: The introduction; it includes: The background and overview of the project work, project aim, project objectives, methodology and thesis outline of the project.
- Chapter Two: Literature Review; it includes: Historical background and description of the components used.
- Chapter Three: Design and Calculations; this chapter discusses the system design methodology, description of the project, circuit design and circuit analysis of the project.
- Chapter Four: this chapter deals with construction process of the project. Both the hardware construction and software design implementation are treated here.
- Chapter Five: this contains the conclusion and recommendation of the project.
Conclusion and Recommendation
The project has been completed, tested and seen in good working condition. This project has been a great challenge to the application of both theoretical and practical knowledge gained during my course of study in the university.
In view of the time, money and energy that have been expended to ensure the successful execution and completion of this project, it will all amount to waste if nothing is done to ensure that temperature telemetering is encouraged among people, that is, measurement of distant or unreachable locations and objects can be done without direct contact and risking the exposure of human body to hazardous conditions, particularly in this part of the developing world where low regard is given towards curbing hazards which might occur to workers through risk taking and negligence.
The application of this project can be extended to industries, meteorology and areas where temperature is needed to be measured remotely to reduce hazard and increase convenience for the user.
In view of the challenges I encountered during the course of this project, I will like to recommend the following to anyone who will like to further research on this topic.
- This project should include as well as temperature measurement, measurement of other physical quantities such as humidity.
- Data logging i.e. storing of data gotten should be included.
- Although this project was carried out with the full implementation of RF wireless technology, it can be improved upon by interfacing the transmitter to use internet technology, this method will tackle the distance barrier for transmission as through internet the temperature reading can be viewed anywhere in the world.
- Also the use of multiple transmitters and the ability of receiver to display the temperature reading received from multiple transmitters simultaneously will enhance usability of the intelligent device.
- Also with the vast development and use of the android OS, a GUI android application can be created and interface for mobile viewing and data logging of the temperature reading on the go.
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