Digital voltmeter (DVM) is a measuring device used in displaying AC or DC voltage values. DVM displays voltages as discrete numerals instead of a pointer deflection on a continuous scale as in the analogue instruments. An analogue volt meter basically consists of an amplifier connected to a D’ Arsonval meter.
In meter design for measuring DC quantities, the amplifier receives the signal under measurement, amplifies the signal to an indication using a pointer which moves along a calibrated scale.
If the meter is designed to measure AC quantities, a rectifier is inserted in the circuit along with amplifier and D Arsonval movement. It is versatile and accurate measuring instrument that is employed in many laboratory measurements.
This project is divided into five topics, the chapter one is introduction of digital volt meter, chapter two deals with the literature review of the above work.
Chapter three is the main body of the project, principles of operation and the circuit diagram. Chapter four deals with the implementation, testing, soldering and coupling.
Finally, chapter five deals with the recommendation and conclusion of the digital volt meter.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Table of content
- 1.0 Introduction
- 2.0 Literature review
- 3.0 Component and function
- 3.1 Voltage regulator
- 3.2 Variable resistor
- 3.3 Resistor
- 3.4 Micro controller
- 3.5 ROM instruction memory
- 3.6 RAM Memory
- 3.7 The segment display
- 3.8 Construction and operation (DVM)
- 4.0 Implementation
- 4.1 Testing of individual component
- 4.2 Coupling and soldering
- 4.3 Precautions
- 5.0 Conclusion
- 5.1 Recommendation
- 5.2 References
The measurement helps in the discovering of size, length or amount of particular quantities. In other words there are different measuring devices used in laboratory such as thermometer, voltmeter etc
This project deals on digital voltmeter. A voltmeter is an electronic devices used in the measurement of voltages. A voltmeter can be grouped into two namely: digital and analogue voltmeter.
The digital voltmeter makes use of an analogue to digital converter. These convert the analogue to digital or convert the analogue voltages to binary form. The binary is sent to the decoder, where it is converted to a seven-segment display.
There are several methods by which the readings of a digital instrument can be displayed but the two main types are the LED (light emitting diode) and LCD (liquid cryptal display). Both units consist of seven segments. The LED display devices require more current than the LCDs and so they consume more power.
They are widely used in bench digital voltmeters (DVMS) where power consumption is not a primary consideration. This project consists of developing a digital voltmeter that can solve the problem of abnormalities in measurement by providing an effective output. the design specification of the DVM are expected to have namely;
- Voltage regulator
- Variable resistors
- (ADC) converter
- Decoder (BCD)
- A display
- A probes
The digital voltmeter is grouped according to the type of conversion such as
- Ramp type
- Continuous balance
An ADC analogue to digital converter) is also known as a dual slope converter or integrating converter. This type of converter is generally preferred over other types because it offers accuracy simplicity in design and a relatively indifference to noise which makes it very reliable. A ramp A/D converter works very much like the counter-ramp. (Continuous balance dvm). The difficulty with ramp-type A/D converter is the long time it takes to count up to higher voltages but the successive approximation A/D converter cuts down the conversion time. The advantages of the successive-approximation are that the digitizing process is faster.
Advantages Of The Digital Meter
- The numerical display of the digital meter eliminates parallel
- Errors associated with human reading and interpolation are reduced
- Digital instruments have automatic range and polarity selection and this reduces the need for training its operators on the usage.
- Digital instruments provide output in digital form suitable for further processing, recording or interfacing with computer, printer etc
- Finally, accuracy in digital meter is better as readings are often correct to within +0.1% and -0.1% of the true value, while the analogue type may have an error as large as +10%
Conclsion And Recommendation
During the execution of this project, we observed that DVM displays voltages as discrete numerals instead of a pointer deflection on a continuous scale as in the analogue instrument. The DVM is an accurate measuring instrument that is employed in many laboratory measurement. It makes use of analogue to digital converter (ADC) and can drive a series of four seven segment LED display directly. The digital voltmeter can be used in measuring AC or DC voltages. The components and the integrated circuit chips should be tested for continuity before soldering and coupling
The availability of laboratory equipment remains vital and basic in the study of electrical and electronics engineering courses. This will facilitate the learning and comprehensive ability of students, since engineering courses are practical oriented, therefore student should not relent for any reasons to make use of their available laboratory equipments.
Hence, good understanding on scientific and engineering knowledge will make practical exercise and involvement interesting. Therefore, student should involve themselves in practical exercise because it will improve their assimilation the theoretical aspect of engineering and scientific knowledge. Finally, the department should allocate projects at the beginning of the semester to enable the students source for fund and other materials that can help them carry out their projects.
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