Effect Of Substance Abuse Among Youths In Ilorin Metropolis Of Kwara State (A Case Study Of Sango Area)

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Effect Of Substance Abuse Among Youths In Ilorin Metropolis Of Kwara State (A Case Study Of Sango Area)


Abstract


Drug/substance abuse is one of the major problems confronting the nation today especially among the youth. Incidences of drug/substance and alcohol abuse and related anti-social behaviour have tremendously increased in recent years. This has become a matter of concern to the government, parents, teachers, non-governmental organisations and all other relevant agencies. The Nigeria government has recognised the seriousness of the drug/substance problem, this is the reason why most of the drugs are prohibited by law and there national and international agencies established for the purpose of monitoring and controlling illegal drug trade.

In 1980, the Federal Government established the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) to fight drug abuse and trafficking in the country and initiated the National Campaign against Drug/substance Abuse (NACADA) in early 2001. This present study found that drug/substance use and abuse among youth are increasing despite the control mechanisms that have been put in place. The study recommended that, as a first step to prevent and control drug/substance abuse, parents should be sensitised on the dangers of drug/substance abuse, the attendant problems and their functions as role models. Furthermore, schools should have a drug/substance prevention curriculum from Kindergarten onwards teaching that drug/substance use is wrong and harmful. There is also the need for initiation of rehabilitation programmes for drug/substance dependent persons.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Citification
  • Copy right
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Background of study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Purpose of the study
  • Research question
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • Concept of drug/substance abuse
  • Common drugs/substance abuse by youth in Ilorin metropolis
  • Reasons for drug/substance abuse
  • Theory on drug/substance abuse
  • Structural strain theory
  • Theoretical theory

Chapter Three

Methodology

  • Research design
  • Population sample and sampling techniques
  • Instrument of data collection
  • Validity of the instrument
  • Reliability of the instrument
  • Procedure for data collection
  • Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • Preamble
  • Summary of finding

Chapter Five

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • Suggestion for further study
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the Study

This research work investigated the effects of drug/substance/substance Abuse among youths in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state. It is a case study of Sango area in the state capital.

According to Laver (1978) drug/substance abuse simply means the improper use of drug/substances to the degree that the consequences are defined as detrimental to the user and or the society. The World Health Organization (WHO (2006) also defined drug/substance abuse as a “state” of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug/substance (natural or synthetic).
Drug/substance abuse patterns include all aspects of drug/substance usage by the youths ranging from how much, how often and what sort of drug/substances, where who, with, what circumstances and so on. The analysis of contemporary social problems has consistently proved more and more controversial because of the variables involved in their analysis, with the incidence of drug/substance abuse, being of utmost concern to the user himself, his family, the government and the entire society in which he lives. This situation seems to have caused a lot of embarrassment to the government including most especially the damage done to the image of Nigerian abroad. It is obvious that custom officials in the United States of America and indeed the entire nations of Europe subject the people of Nigeria traveling to their countries to a more thorough and embarrassing checks. This type of degrading and humiliating checking of Nigerians according to them is because they want to crack down on drug smugglers of which Nigerians are the chief suspects due to the hard drug/substance trafficking posture exhibited by many greedy Nigerians.

The Nigerian society has defined some drug/substances as acceptable while others as not acceptable without reference to their effects on mental and physical wellbeing of the users. For instance, our society considers the use of alcohol and nicotine as acceptable; hence those who take these drug/substances do so freely in public without fear of arrest or societal stigma. In the society as a whole, crime, promiscuity, armed robbery and other vices are all linked to drug/substance abuse. Therefore this study is motivated by the controversy that surrounds the effect of drug/substance abuse among youth in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state.

Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a dependence on a legal or illegal drug or medication. Keep in mind that alcohol and nicotine are legal substances, but are also considered drugs. When an individual is addicted, he is not able to control his drug use and he may continue using the drug despite the harm it causes. Drug addiction can cause an intense craving for the drug. The individual may want to quit, but most people find they can’t do it on their own. It can also lead to serious, long-term consequences, including problems with physical and mental health, relationships, employment, and the law.

Many things influence the development of an addiction. While we do not yet know how these various influences combine to form an addiction, we do know there are two basic types. One type of influence is biological forces, such a person’s genetics. The second type is environmental influences. This includes people’s life experiences. Early life experiences, interpersonal relationships, and culture can heavily influence us.


Statement of the Problem

Drug/substance abuse in Ilorin metropolis in the contemporary time has become one issue that cast a gloomy shadow to the entire Nigerian society especially among youths. The height of drug/substance trafficking in Ilorin was witnessed in 2015 during the political campaigns. During that period, it was mostly the youths that were involved in drug/substances abuse, despite the decree No. 20 of 1984 that was promulgated against the drug/substance abuse. Unfortunately, politicians looked at it as normal tools for campaigning.

The usage of drug/substance either by the youths or other members of the larger society in all its ramifications appears to be a social problem. This problem is widespread and it affects all and sundry. In other words, this wide spread use and abuse entice people from all walks of life and beyond the human destruction caused by drug/substance dependence is the damage to traditional values and lifestyles. Studies have also shown that drug/substance abuse wrecks the individual, shatter families and weakens the entire society with its burden of economic looses, health cost, increased lawlessness and crime. In addition, drug/substances undermines ability of youths to learn meaningfully.It also contradicts societal values of physical wellbeing.

People experiments with drug/substances because they seem to hold the promise of fulfillment. However, the fulfillment is generally elusive, since greater and greater quantities are consumed and ultimately the person suffers both physical and psychological deterioration. The drug/substance abuser also experiences problems of interaction and such interactional problem is encountered inside his immediate family and stress is invariably created in the family situation of drug/substance abuse (Hoffman, 1990).

Furthermore, drug/substance abuse may entail a lot o social problems ranging from lateness to lectures, family neglect, deviance behaviours, involvement in crime etc (Earl 2000). In terms of economic cost, it includes the more money required to deal with the undesirable effects of the drug/substance abuse, the less money for services and programmes that enhances the quality of life (Earl, 2000).

One of the factors militating against the eradication of drug/substance abuse among our youths is that of security agencies, such as the police force, and the National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies among others these have not done enough to check this scourge. Another factor militating against the eradication of drug/substance abuse among Nigerian youths is the problem of corruption among the men and women officials of these aforementioned agencies.

To this end and judging from the problems outlined earlier, this research was aimed at ascertaining the effect of drug/substance abuse on the youths of Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state, using Sango as a study area.


Purpose of the Study

The primary purpose of this study was to determine

The influence of drug/substances abused on youths in the society.

Specifically the study:

  1. Found out the drug/substances that are commonly abused by youths in Ilorin metropolis.
  2. Found out the implications for youths involvement on drug/substance abuse.
  3. Determined the extent of drug/substances abuse by the youth in Ilorin Metropolis
  4. Identified strategies/measures aimed at eradicating the drug/substance abuse problems among youths in Ilorin metropolis.
  5. To ascertain the reasons why drug/substances are been abused by the youths in Ilorin metropolis.

Research Questions

The following research questions were answered:

  1. What are the common drug/substances used by the youths in Ilorin metropolis?
  2. What are the major reasons accountable for engagement of youths in drug/substance abuse in Ilorin metropolis?
  3. What are the likely implications for youth’s involvement in drug/substance abuse? In Ilorin metropolis
  4. What are the measures that should be used to eradicate drug/substance abuse among youths in Ilorin metropolis?
  5. What extent do youths in Ilorin use drug/substance abuse?

Significance of the Study

The results of the study may help in creating awareness in the society on the general negative effects of drug/substance abuse on their health most especially the youths.

It could make youths to realize that excessive or even small intakes of these items (drug/substances) have inhibitory effects on their brain and general wellbeing.

The result of this study may also be used in making consumers to have a second thought before partaking in their uses.

This will go a long way in modeling their behavior which the general awareness has created.

Findings from this study may go a long way in reducing the numerous health problems encountered as a result of the misuse of drug/substances or the intake of hard drug/substances.

Result from the study could also help young researchers or educators in solving some problems of drug/substance abuse, thereby ensuring good health of the youths in general and social harmony in the society.

Finally, all the social ills in the society as a result of the effects of drug/substance abuse among the Youths in the society will be drastically minimized.


Scope of the Study

The research work was carried out to investigate the effects of substance abuse among the youths in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara state a case study of Sango area. The scope of this study is limited to drug/substance abuse by the youths of Sango area Ilorin during the period of this research work.


Definition of Terms

(a) Drug/substance:

A drug/substance is a chemical substance capable of altering the physical and psychological function of the body such as India hem, Marijuana, cocaine etc.

(b) Abuse:

This means the misuse or over use of something. It can also be described as the illegal use of something.

(c) Drug/substance Abuse:

This is the misuse of drug/substances. It could be defined as the illegal use of substance which interferes with the human behavior.

(d) Effects:

This could be defined as consequences. It is also the power to produce result.

(e) Youth:

The period of existence preceding maturity or age; the whole early part of life, from childhood, or, sometimes, from infancy to manhood.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

In this chapter, the findings presents in chapter five are discussed; conclusion and relevant recommendations are made


Discussions

Research question: What are the major reasons accountable for engagement of youths in drug/substance abuse in Ilorin metropolis?

Result from research questions shows that respondents agreed that they have been taken other drug aside from medicine with majority said for more than two years and they were 18 years and above while taken drug and they get money to buy drug substance from pocket money and income from business and they get to know about drug substance from friends and they usually buy themselves. The contradicting study by Odejide (2014) who observed that the reasons advanced by the youth for taking drug are: to feel on top like adults, to feel good, to get excited, to be like friends and to be like stars. The abuse of these drugs which lead to addiction among these students gradually progresses to affect their academic performance and cause a host of evil happenings on the campus and in our society, such as incessant occurrence of road traffic accidents as a result of effects of these substances, Some students indulged in exam-malpractices while others had breakdown during examinations leading to failure and eventual drop-out, Some of them become rude and arrogant to lecturers and parents and occasionally causing riots and chaos on the campuses while some grew up to become criminal in the society leading them into prison-yards.
Research question two: What are the major reasons accountable for engagement of youths in drug/substance abuse in Ilorin metropolis?

The result from research question two shows that majority of youth engage in drug abuse through peers group influence, parental example, social pressure and cultural influence. This agrees with Oketch (2008) who observed that the period of youth is characterized by many challenges which they believe are understood by their peers. In all this turmoil, come a socially classic, adult idealized, commonly available, mood altering drugs. Thus, he said, many adolescents try alcohol, cigarettes and cannabis. This was also supported by NACADA (2006) who reported that peer pressure accounts for 21 – 42% influence in all types of drugs and substances consumed. The peer subculture also facilitates negative behaviour by making the substances available and by providing an appropriate social setting and instructions. Other factors according to Ballas (2006) include the following; curiosity, social rebellions, early initiation, poor control, low self-esteem, poor stress management, to escape reality, genetic predisposition, withdrawal effects and craving, sensation felling.

Research question three: What are the common drug/substances used by the youths in Ilorin metropolis
Research from question 3 shows that majority of youth commonly abused drugs such as alcohol, cigarettes, codeine and Indian hemp which affect their development. NACADA, (2006) identify commonly abused drugs and substances by Kenyan youth include as alcohol, tobacco, bhang, miraa (khat), a host of inhalants and prescription drugs
Research question four: What are the likely implications for youth’s involvement in drug/substance abuse?
Research question four shows that drug use by youth affect academic, physical health, mental health and social effect of youth. The findings agree with Blandford (1998) who noted that drug abuse has become a stumbling block to the students learning behavior which is essential element in educational practice. Ten percent (10%) of the students believed that drug abuse contributed to withdrawal syndrome as they did not interact with them while 8% believed that drug users are ever violent.


Conclusion

In line with the findings of this study the researcher makes the following conclusions. Drug abuse is a social problem basically associated with young people. These young people involve themselves in taking hard drugs and excessive taking of some drugs which may alter the body system or may cause damage to the health. Drug abuse is very common among undergraduates, they take drugs, to get “high” or to make them feel “big” or for them to just feel fit into the environment while some take this drugs through the influence of friends or other people around them. Drug is mostly abused by males undergraduates than compared to the female.


Recommendations

  1. Government should set up rehabilitation centres to aid victims of drug abuse. Further to this, there is also the need for agency in combating the social disintegration by way of public awareness and education. Community organizations and health and social agencies must identify high-risk groups and educate the public about the dangers of drug use, emphasizing vital importance of drug free life.
  2. A social environment should be created which would discourage drug abuse. Society should formulate policies to prevent drug abuse and should also hold seminars for parents and families to alert them early to the symptoms of drug abuse in their children.
  3. Government should prevent the cultivation/sales of Indian Helm and other deadly herbs that encourage drug abuse.
  4. Government should strictly enforce its existing laws against drug abuse through its regulatory agencies.
  5. Parents and guardians should Endeavour to monitor their children and wards so that they do not engage in drug abuse.
  6. Drug free clubs should be established in campuses
  7. Effort of the government authority should be geared towards intensive use of print and electronic media for public enlightenment.

Suggestions for further study

In view of the wide scope of this study, the findings of the study, limitations, the researcher wish to suggest the following areas worthy of further investigations.

  1. The consequences of Drug Abuse in Nigeria
  2. The effects of Drug Abuse on undergraduates’ academic achievement
  3. The major causes of Drug Abuse among Nigeria University Undergraduates.

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