Role Of Radio Nigeria In Combating Drug Abuse Among University Students

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Role Of Radio Nigeria In Combating Drug Abuse Among University Students


Abstract


The researcher in this work focused on the roles of Radio Nigeria, Enugu in combating drug abuse among University Students. To achieve this aim, research objectives were constructed to guide the researcher in her study. Survey research method was used for the study. The population was the students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani campus, and this made it possible for the researcher to select an appropriate sample size of 320 respondents. Using the questionnaire, the researcher was able to study the population. The researcher was able to find out that Radio Nigeria, Enugu plays a huge role in combating drug abuse among University Students. The study therefore recommends that Radio Nigeria (FRCN) through its campaign programmes has really impacted positively in combating drug abuse among University Students and youths.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Communication dates back many centuries ago, right from the wall to the present use of scientific and methodical approaches in different spheres of human pre-occupation opportunities in an orderly target and result oriented manner.

Mass communication media are made up of print and electronic/broadcast media. However, Radio will be our main focus on this work. Radio is a medium of communication which is established for the promotion of economic development with a maximum coverage. Radio is also established for enhancement of educational development, stimulation of political participation and arousing National security.

Radio is the one of the most dramatic medium with a high audience reach both in the urban and rural areas respectively. Radio coverage is no less than 90 percent effective, the use of vernacular language to convey message makes radios a very flexible, portable and available medium, it is also inexpensive.

Every government, no matter its policy recognizes role of the media in combating drug abuse. Undoubtedly radio makes a greater contribution towards societal improvements, so with this in mind and the features already mentioned above, it can rightly be said that radio is the hub that holds the wheel of society together and it has a role to play in combating the various scourge that afflicts man today and one of such problem that has threatened the existence of man is drug abuse.

However, this study is on the role of Radio Nigeria Enugu in combating drug abuse among university students, a study of Enugu State University of Science Technology Students (ESUT), Agbani Campus.

Although Nigeria as a whole was known and considered a very great nation, rich in human and mineral resources, she was proud to be. She was financially, politically, economically and socially strong. Many countries wanted to invest in her, as others wanted just to be associated with her bounty, as they considered the cost of living in Nigeria very low, she was honoured both at home and abroad. She was rightly called the giant of Africa. The glory of Nigeria was simple, wonderful and great and she was the talk of the day. Nigeria in short was the pace-setter as far as the African continent was concerned.

One may rightly say that Nigeria was ascending to the heights in the post. However, striving to reach the peak of glory, politically and economically, along the way, she started descending as far as her glory was concerned. It is a Nigeria is not mentioned favorably in such an assessment, a situation which would not have arisen twenty or over ten years ago.

There is more and more insincerity both in the government sector and in the private sector. Crime is on the increase. Hired assassins are on rampage. The government seems incapable of doing anything. Everyone is looking for a messiah. Life in Nigeria has turned out to look like the science fiction book “animal farm” by George Orwell.
Nigeria has many serious problems, which have very serious health, social and economic implications on the society. According to Anekwe (2004), a higher percentage of our youths within the age arrange of eighteen (18) and youth between the age of twenty five (25) and twenty eighty years (28) have tried one drug or the other ad are tied to drugs. A high percentage of those admitted of mental related problems also come from the same group. Thus the drug epidemic is gradually eroding the manpower base and future of Nigeria.

Before we advance further, it is very necessary we give a clear definition of drug. The advanced learner’s dictionary of current English defines drugs as substance used for medical purpose or substance producing stupor or insensibility. It also describes abuse as misuse of drug, or wrong drug usage. Drugs that are not generally accepted, medical ground may be a term preferred to the abuse of drugs in Nigeria. Nigeria has big problems, one of which is the serious social and economic implication in the society.

According to drug and alcohol service formation system (2002) poly drug, alcohol was most common substance reported to be abused by76 percent, the second was marijuana by 65 percent and other drugs by 26 percent and over half by fifty six percent of all admissions for treatment in publicity funded facilities in 2002, reported more than one substance abuse. Young-adult admissions were more of poly drug abuse, then older adult admission were more of alcohol according to the report.

As pointed out in Anekwe Herietta (2004), the Yaba psychiatric hospital, in 1984, treated 234 patients and in 1987, the figure climbed to 12,587, in 1989. It increased to 70,316. But these seems to be just a tip of the iceberg as this does not adequately resented the ugly situation as witnessed in most of the streets and federal highways in our country, Nigeria.

Drug abuse is one type of deviant behavior that was previously, exclusively associated with the western societies. This problem has been in existence before the eighties, but today the footage has turned into a frightening reality, a monster that has best ridden our country like a leach and refused to let go while gradually spreading its tentacles.

Drug abuse is not just about the creative with a vacant look in its fast blinking eyes, a twittering body and an altered without taking is about the student who cannot read without taking unsweetened coffee, kola-nut or pills. Is about filter lover who turns to the bottle for salvation, the business executive who must smoke to be able to work, the retrenched worker who floods his veins with smoke to forget his sorrows and adventures, who tries to get hick because others are doing it. Thus, drug abuse is not just about mislaying of drugs but the use of any chemical substance that has an effect on the body and they include, smoke cannabis, and heroine, cocaine, from the hemp plant, (cannabis satiua).

Nigeria has decided to indulge in drug abuse and there is nothing the country has to show for it. Most parents in Nigeria today in their bid to make both earns, meet, searching for greener pastures, always abandon and neglect the power welfare of their wards and children and expose them to the “unofficial” assistance of so called house-maids.
This ugly incident will psychologically depress such children there by giving rise to child abuse which is an off-shot of drug abuse.

Without minding words, such youths will end up in taking solace in some illicit hard drugs mentioned above for their survival in life. With this sad development, the society is being gradually and systematically ruined uncontrollably there, by destroying the moral values to the Nigeria policy via her youth. Drug abuse is a fatal past time Nigerians have decided to indulge in and made a companion.

In the past and in the present, there have been advertisements, campaigns, announcements, and a public outery against certain hard drugs, their effects and dangers through different media like Television, Radio, Newspaper, Magazines and Bill boards with such slogan as “say no to drugs, drugs kill,” “a drug free child is the pride of the parents,” “lend a hand in ridding Nigeria of hard drugs”, “will you try anything?. You may never get off the hook” “aviod drug trafficking. You may end up behind bars” and so many others. The above slogans and many similar ones are some examples of the propaganda against drug and drug trafficking both from government and private agencies to preserve agencies to preserve life rather than to destroy.

However this research is aimed at knowing role or functions of radio of Nigeria of combating against drug abuse, in particular reference to ESUT undergraduates.

Nigerians have just woken up to the menace of drug abuse which is like a night mare that refuses to go away or like a shadow that does not depart from you. Drug abuse is not recent phenomenon in Nigeria. It started in the late 1960’s when the use of Indian hemp (cannabis) as a stimulant became widespread and what followed was a graded upsurge in the use of hemp of the Nigeria youths.

As a menace of drugs grew wide, the government woke up to the dangers of the trade if left unchecked.
This packaged programme was communicated to people of ESUT student and the entire society whom the projected is meant for.

Finally, evaluation of the programme will be undertaken to know the success or otherwise of the programme and also to know if an alternative solution would be sought.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

  1. The researcher intends to know whether the campaign programme on drug abuse covers the location of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani campus.
  2. The researcher is aimed at investigating whether the campaign programme is done in a language known and common among the students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology.
  3. The researcher intends to know whether Radio Nigeria Enugu gives enough airtime for the campaign on drug abuse.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To know whether the campaign programme on drug abuse covers a wide reach of Enugu State University of Science Technology, Agbani campus
  2. To know whether the campaign programme is presented in a language known among the students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology.
  3. To find out whether Radio Nigeria Enugu gives enough airtime for the campaign on drug abuse.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent does the campaign programme on drug abuse in radio Nigeria, Enugu cover a wide reach of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani campus?
  2. How can the campaign programme on drug abuse be presented in a language known among the students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology?
  3. Does radio Nigeria Enugu give sufficient airtime for the campaign programme on drug abuse

1.5 Scope of the Study

This study is limited to students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani campus. The researcher shall however study the students of ESUT undergraduates, especially the final year students in the university. However the students of the faculty of medicine shall also be focused as their course of study relates to human health and this research work. Hence since the institution was chosen as a study because of her years of Academic excellence, therefore, the finding of this study will be generalized to include all students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant because it will help the programme producer to know the extent his programme is in order to help reduce drug abuse in our society and to know the level of awareness on drug abuse created among students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Agbani campus.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Operational Definition of Significant Terms

Drugs:

Drugs are harmful substances such as cocaine, heroine, methamphetamine, tobacco, cannabis etc. Used among students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology from January to June 2014.

Abuse:

Abuse is the misuse of drugs among students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology in a way that there is observable effect.

Combating:

The roles performed by Radio Nigeria in eradicating drug abuse among students of Enugu State University of Science and Technology.

Role:

The duties and functions performed by Radio Nigeria in eliminating and combating drug abuse among students of Enugu State Science University of Science and Technology

Radio:

A broadcast media used in informing the society especially the youths to avoid harmful and unlawful practices such as drug abuse.

Undergraduate:

A group of students who are studying for their first degree in Enugu State University of Science and Technology.

Student:

A group of undergraduates acquiring knowledge for their first degree programme in Enugu State University of Science and Technology.


5.1 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations Introduction

The main objective of his study was to know the roles of radio Nigeria, Enugu in combating drug abuse among university students. Survey research design was adopted using questionnaires for data gathering. Based on the data collected, analyzed and discussed, this chapter will be focused on the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.


5.2 Summary

The researcher in this work has exhausted sufficient efforts in the systematic arrangement of the work in sequential order. The proceeding chapters of this work have among other things tried to summarily review, discuss and interpret the roles of Radio Nigeria, Enugu in combating drug abuse among University students.

The researcher gave detailed inductor overview on how youths of today especially students of the institution of higher learning (university) indulge in the intake of drugs and become addicted to such, not minding it’s side effects.

The research also projected the literature that was used in building up this research work. On the review, discussions were made on the concept of radio, radio as a medium of communication, roles of radio in the society the concept of Radio Nigeria (Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria), the role of Radio Nigeria, Enugu in combating drug abuse, concept of drugs, concept of drug abuse, the types of drugs and its effects on the user, drug addiction, prescription drug abuse, a table on drug misuse, substance abuse, the roles of National Drug Law,

Enforcement Agency (NDLEA), drug cartels and drug trafficking. Each of these topics was thoroughly touched by the researcher.

The research work also treated the issue of research methodology ranging from the research design, population of study, sampling techniques, using the systematic sampling technique. The researcher’s method of investing was based on the copies of questionnaires that were distributed to the selected respondents.

Data presentation was done through analytical process that followed each table and the tables were properly interpreted according to the data computed therein. The chapters therefore contained 17 tablets in all which gave a detailed and qualified explanations of data gathered in the course of study.

The researcher gave a brief summary of the whole work done in this research work, the findings, conclusion and recommendations. To this end, Nwodu (2006) states “summary should be a brief of all that was done in the study, a tie up of what was done in the day”. This very chapter finally brought the entire study to an end while making some explanations and giving recommendations on the way forward.


5.3 Conclusion

This study has been able to demonstrate that the media, particularly radio have played important roles in combating and eliminating the use of harmful drugs which is detrimental to the health among the youth, especially university students. Radio is the most effective and preferred media in addressing the issues of drug abuse among the youths in Nigeria.

However, readers can read on and understand the ravages of drug on the user that is the testimony and exhortation of those involved.

Authorities’ government and doctors should employ avenues to create awareness and combated drug abuse.

Moreover, films, documentary programmes and cartoons should be applied to bring down the danger of drug abuse to the publics. Article writing can be quite relevant in the crusade of the act.

Finally, the researcher suggests that further studies should be carried out to know more on the drug issues in our society.


5.4 Recommendations

Having critically analyzed the roles of Radio Nigeria, Enugu in combating drug abuse among University students, with the implication of the findings being clearly put in focus in the preceding chapters, the researcher hereby make the following recommendations for further study thus:

  1. The future researchers should study the source for drug awareness and media preferences among Nigeria universities considering high risk group coverage.
  2. Officers of drug enforcement agencies should increase the use of broadcast media in the enlightenment of Nigerian’s on the danger of the menace since the broadcast media was found to be the chief source of drug awareness, though the broadcast media was chosen to be the ultimate, the print media should not be under-rated or over-looked. Both are expected to work hand in hand to fight against drug abuse and misuse.
  3. The nation anti-drug crusaders would do well to use the broadcast media to get the students and indeed Nigerians, since the students from the highest risk group in Nigerian’s drug epidermis.
  4. Parents should also constantly advise their children to listen to radio and television, especially campaign programmes on drug abuse so as expose them on the dangers of drug abuse. Also, the churches are to take more on this act.
  5. Furthermore, a research should be carried out in Nigeria society with a view to gathering data that would be useful in sampling out drug abuse and trafficking in the social-economic factors that breed drug abuse and trafficking.
  6. According to lrem Sylvester (2010) during interview on drug abuse, sensitization on public addicts and also established agencies in the control of drug abuse can aid to eliminate drug abuse in Nigeria. He added that there should be job creation equipping the law enforcement agents to fight the influx of hard drugs like cocaine, Indian hemp, etc. Prosecution of peddlers of hard drugs are also necessary to look into.
  7. Nwachukwu Columbus (2010), in his speech on drug abuse, during noble youth day orientation at Edda, Ebonyi state, it is very important that there should be house to house enlightenment or the demerits of drug abuse. Again government should enact and enforce laws on it, also empowering rulers to check drug abuse in their communities. He moved further to say that parents should avoid such acts and check drug abuse at family level.
  8. Also, campaign programmes on drug abuse in Radio Nigeria, Enugu should present it’s programme in the language people will understand especially the youths, there should present their programme in every language that exists in Nigeria so that people who cannot understand any other language except their own, will understand. Also there should make sure that maximum airtime is given to listeners so that they can understand the dangers of drug abuse.

5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies

Scholars and students of Mass communication should embark on research. This is in order to fill any unidentified gaps in this study. Such unidentified gaps to be researched upon by mass-communication students are the roles and responsibilities of NAFDAC (National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control) in combating drug abuse to ensure National security in the country.


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