Evaluation Of The Attitude Of Radiographers Towards Geriatric Patients In Three Tertiary Hospitals In Enugu States

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

Evaluation Of The Attitude Of Radiographers Towards Geriatric Patients In Three Tertiary Hospitals In Enugu States


Abstract


The study aims at evaluating the attitude of radiographers towards the geriatric patients using three tertiary hospitals in Enugu urban which includes University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE) and Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH).

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the attitude of radiographers towards geriatric patients,
  2. To determine which gender of radiographers have a more specific attitude towards geriatric patients,
  3. To determine the knowledge of radiographers about the challenges of geriatric management.

A cross-sectional and non-experimental survey was carried out using two different structured questionnaires- one for the radiographers and the other for the geriatric patients. A total of 175 questionnaires were shared to geriatric patients and 52 questionnaires to radiographers in the three hospitals. The entire questionnaire given to the geriatric patients was collected by the researcher but 50 were collected back from the radiographers.

The result shows that the radiographers are knowledgeable about geriatric patients care and management; the patients are properly received on arrival into the examination rooms by the radiographers in the hospitals, the patients were called by their first name and surname by radiographers into the examination room. Radiographers do not introduce themselves to the geriatric patients before handling them, the radiographers do not ask the patients about their illness and how they are faring, there exist a very poor communication gap between the geriatric patients and the radiographers and the radiographers are confirmed by the geriatric patients to have a very good positive attitude towards them. Also the radiographers are trained on geriatric care and management but the training was not enough, the attention given to geriatric patients in the hospital is adequate and finally, female radiographers have relatively more negative attitude towards the geriatric patients.

For the profession to improve, the department should organize seminars on geriatric management and care to enlighten radiographers on the ways and methods of geriatric handling. This will also help to remind radiographers of difference between young patients and geriatric patients due to anatomical and physiological changes in them also the radiography curriculum should be revisited to inculcate enough programs pertaining geriatric care and management. This will go a long way in enhancing professional development.


List of Tables


  • Table 1 Showing the Age and Sex Distribution Radiographers
  • Table 2 Showing the Age and Sex Distribution of Geriatric Patients
  • Table 3 Showing the Educational Qualification of Radiographers
  • Table 4 Shows the Patients Response on How They Were Received and Their Satisfaction on the Kind of Reception Accorded to Them by the Radiographers
  • Table 5: Patients Response on How Their Names Were Called by the Radiographers
  • Table 6: Shows the Level of Communication and Relationship Between the Radiographers and Geriatric Patients
  • Table 7: Shows the Response of Geriatric Patients on the General Attitude of Radiographers Towards Them
  • Table 8 Shows the Response of Geriatric Patients Based on the Attention Given to Them in the Department
  • Table 9: Response of Radiographers on Whether Gender Has an Influence on Their Attitude Towards Geriatric Patients. 48
  • Table 10: Radiographers Response on Which Gender Has More Negative Attitude Towards Geriatric Patients. 49
  • Table 11: Radiographers Response on Whether They Are Likely to Encounter Difficulty While Handling Geriatric Patients
  • Table 12: Response of Radiographers on the Possible Problems They Will Encounter While Performing Geriatric Investigation.
  • Table 13: Showing the Response of Radiographers on Whether They Underwent Any Training on Geriatric Care and Management as Undergraduate and Whether the Training Was Enough.

List of Figures


  • Figure 1: Showing the Lateral Thoracic Radiograph of a Geriatric Patient Showing an Accentuated Forward Upper Thoracic Curve
  • Figure 2: Showing the Posteroanterior Chest Radiograph of a Geriatric Patient Showing Diminished Lung Capacity Due to a Stiffened Chest Wall
  • Figure 3: Showing the Lateral Chest Radiograph of a Geriatric Patient Showing a Displaced Arch of Aorta That is Dilated and Elongated
  • Figure 4: Showing Anteroposterior Contrast Radiograph of the Abdomen of a Geriatric Patient Showing a Mobile Colon With Pneumoperitoneum
  • Figure 5: Showing the Anteroposterior Hip Radiograph of a Geriatric Patient That Have Undergone Hip Arthroplasty
  • Figure 6: Showing the Anteroposterior Knee Radiograph of a Geriatric Patient That Have Undergone Knee Arthroplasty
  • Figure 7: Showing Picture of a Knee Arthroplasty of a Geriatric Patient
  • Figure 8: A Simple Bar Chart Showing Number of Radiographer Against Their Number of Years of Work Experience

Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background
  • 1.2 Statement of Problems
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Scope of the Study
  • 1.6 Review of Related Literature

Chapter Two

2.0 Theoretical Background

  • 2.1 The Geriatric Patient
  • 2.2 Changes Associated With Ageing
  • 2.2.1 Changes in the Integumentary System
  • 2.2.2 Changes in the Head and Neck
  • 2.2.3 Changes in the Pulmonary System
  • 2.2.4 Changes in the Cardiovascular System
  • 2.2.5 Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
  • 2.2.6 Changes in the Hepatic System
  • 2.2.7 Changes in the Genitourinary System
  • 2.2.8 Changes in the Musculoskeletal System
  • 2.2.9 Changes in the Neurologic System
  • 2.3 The Patient Who Has Had Arthroplastic Surgery

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Target Population
  • 3.3 Area of Study
  • 3.4 Subject Selection Criteria
  • 3.4.1 Inclusion Criteria
  • 3.4.2 Exclusion Criteria
  • 3.5 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.5.1 Sources of Data
  • 3.5.2 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5.3 Procedure for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Presentation, Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary of Findings
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Limitations
  • 5.4 Area of Further Research
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background

As populations grow older, we can question the effect this has on our attitudes towards old age. Negative attitudes lead only to ageism, a process of systematic stereotyping of, and discrimination against people because they are old(1). Ageism generates and reinforces a fear and denigration of the ageing process and legitimizes the use of chronological age to mark out classes of people who are systematically denied resources and opportunities(2). Old people apart from being segregated and stereotyped by the younger generation in different occasions in the society (3), seems to be experiencing the same issue in the hospital setting while being attended to by the medical and healthcare professionals which includes the radiographers. The essence of this research is to find out the attitudes the healthcare professionals and in particular the radiographers, exhibit towards the geriatric patients.

A geriatric patient is an older person with impaired overall function. There is no set age, but he or she is usually over 75years old with chronic illness(es), physical impairment, and/or cognitive impairment. Most developed world countries have accepted the chronological age of 65years as a definition of ‘elderly’ or older person, but like many westernized concepts, this does not adapt well to the situation in Africa. Realistically, if a definition in Africa is to be developed, it should be either 50 or 55 years of age, but even this is somewhat arbitrary and introduces additional problems of data comparability across nations. According to the World Health Organization, the traditional African definition of an elder or ‘elderly’ person correlate with the chronological ages of 50 to 65years depending on the setting, region and the country(4). Adding to the difficulty of establishing a definition, actual birthdates are quite often unknown because many individuals in Africa do not have an official record of their birth date. In addition, chronological or “official” definitions of ageing can differ widely from traditional or community definitions of when a person is older.

As these people advance in age, the ageing process is of course a biological reality which has its own dynamic, largely beyond human control. Due to the fact that there exists so many changes in both the anatomical and physiological make up of these people which is beyond their control, many of them takes to chronic sickness and visits the hospital on regular basis and some are even hospitalized. In the hospital, these geriatric patients meet with different medical and healthcare professionals including the radiographers in the radiology department.

An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, object, event, activities, ideas, or just about anything in your environment (5). An attitude can also be defined as a favourable or unfavourable evaluation of something (6). People can also be conflicted or ambivalent towards an object, meaning that they simultaneously posses both positive and negative attitudes toward the item in question. Certain attitudes and behavioural displays are being exhibited by medical professionals to their patients especially the geriatric patients in their different places of work. The medical radiographer is not an exception to those behavioural displays. By the way, a radiographer or medical imaging technologist is a trained health professional who performs medical imaging by producing high quality x-ray pictures or images used to diagnose and treat injury or disease. It is an important part of medicine and a patient’s diagnoses and treatment is often dependent on the x-ray images produced. Just as it is confirmed that the radiographer and the radiology department plays an important role in the general wellbeing of the geriatric patients, it is important for the radiographer to know that some of their attitudinal displays send some form of signals to their patients especially the geriatric patients. These signals might be a positive one which may aid in the overall good result being achieved between the radiographer and the geriatric patient. It may also send a negative signal which may worsen the condition of both the radiographer and the patient, for instance, a radiographer may disgust every time he or she encounters a geriatric patient and in which he may lose control of the situation thus ending up making the patient’s condition worsened. Or for a radiographer that lacks a proper manner of talking and addressing these people, will succeed in aggravating the patients.

Hence, the research is geared towards evaluating the attitude of radiographers towards their geriatric patients in tertiary hospitals within Enugu urban.


1.2 Statement of Problems

  1. Old people apart from being segregated and stereotyped by their younger counterparts in the society (3) may be experiencing the same issue in the hands of radiographers in the radiology department.
  2. There is no reference on which gender of radiographers has a more specific attitude towards the geriatric patients.
  3. As more of our older persons consume health care services, radiographers seem to be unaware of the challenges they will face to appropriately care for this segment of the population.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the attitude of radiographers towards geriatric patients.
  2. To determine which gender of radiographers have a more specific attitude towards geriatric patients.
  3. To determine the knowledge of radiographers about the challenges of geriatric management.

1.4 Significance of Study

  1. The research will help to show the attitude of radiographers towards geriatric patients which can be used as a reference by young radiographer graduands.
  2. The research will help to know the group of radiographers that certain programs on geriatric management should be directed to mostly for the purpose of professional development.
  3. The research will help to determine the knowledge of radiographers about geriatric handling and management and whether there is need to for more enlightenment courses to be organized for radiographers in geriatric care and management.

1.5 Scope of the Study

This study will cover all radiographers in tertiary hospitals in Enugu urban, which includes University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH) and National Orthopaedic Hospital Enugu (NOHE). It will include intern radiographers and radiographers presently undergoing their youth service in the above named hospitals. The scope also covered all the geriatric patients in the hospitals of study.


1.6 Review of Related Literature

Much work has not been done on the topic. Most of the works seen are done mainly on the individual make-ups of the topic.

An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, events, activities, ideas, or just about anything in your environment(5). For Lumley, an attitude is “a susceptibility to certain kinds of stimuli and readiness to respond repeatedly in a given way-which are possible toward our world and the parts of it which impinge upon us”. Attitudes are judgment.  They develop on the ABC model (Affect, Behavior and Cognition). The affective response is an emotional response that expresses an individual’s degree of preference for an entity. The behavioral intention is a verbal or typical behavioral tendency of an individual. The cognitive is a response is a cognitive evaluation of the entity that constitutes an individual’s belief about the object (7).

According to Jung’s definition of attitude in chapter xi of Psychological Types, Jung’s definition of attitude is a “readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way”. Attitudes very often come in pairs, one conscious and the other unconscious. Within this broad definition Jung defines several attitudes. The main (but not only) attitude dualities that Jung defines are the following-consciousness and unconscious. The “presence of two attitudes is extremely frequent, one conscious and the other unconscious. This means that consciousness has a constellation of contents different from that of the unconscious, a duality particularly evident in “neurosis” (8).

This said attitude can be expressed in the form of physical abuses to the old people according to Linda Murray and Dianne DeVos in their article (9). The old people constitutes the fastest growing segment of the United States which is 31.1million people are 65 or older representing 12.5% of population. By the year 2030, the number of people age 65 or older will grow to 70million and the elderly people who are members of a minority group will increase by 328% (10). What does these statistics mean to radiologic technologists and other health care providers? Unfortunately, 5% to 7% of people older than 65 are abused (11). If that percentage remains constant, the number of elder abuse cases would at least double by 2030 as the elderly population increases. It is likely, however, that the percentage of abused elders will escalate rather than remain constant (12). Linda Murray and Dianne DeVos also pointed out that development seems to diminish elderly status (9). That is to say that in countries that are more economically developed, elders are treated with less respect, have fewer roles and hold a lower societal status.   According to the Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, less economically developed countries treat their elderly with more respect, provide more roles for them and accord them higher status (13).

According to American Association of Retired Persons, there is no consensus regarding the definition of elder abuse (11). The status of elder abuse by radiographers can be intentional physical abuse or unintentional physical abuse, but more of the abuses are unintentional. Example, the very nature of the radiology department is unfriendly to the elderly patient. Rooms usually are kept cold; arthritic patients are asked to climb onto high, hard tables and assume uncomfortable positions; people are asked to hold their breath for what seems to them like an eternity. In addition, elderly patients with hearing loss cannot hear the radiographer’s instructions and those with poor eyesight have trouble adjusting to the dimly lit radiography suites. Certain imaging studies are stressful for the elderly. For example, withholding food and liquid for 12hours generally is not a problem for a younger patient, but can result in dehydration and be a severe threat to an already frail elderly patient (14).

N.Kearny et al in the result on their article on oncology healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards elderly people, using Kogan’s Old People Scale wrote that regardless of gender, profession and experience persistently negative attitudes were displayed towards elderly people (15). S.Lookinland and K.Anson in their article wrote that language is often used by staff and professionals in such a way as to be patronizing or even insulting to older people. A common example is addressing older people by their first names, a practice which many older people find disrespectful (16).According to a briefing note on a review of the research literature and a series of meetings with key stakeholders in older people’s health and social care provision, produced as part of a wider project on age discrimination being undertaken at the King’s Fund, states that;

  • Sociological studies of medical consultations suggest that social care professionals modify the information, advice and interventions they provide according to the ‘social distance’ that exists between them and their patients or clients. Under this theory, older people, people with severe disabilities or mental health problems, people from different ethnic backgrounds and different social class may be treated less favourably.
  • Older people are frequently viewed as passive and dependent in our culture. Economic activity tends to be the normal measure of achievement of younger members of society may be given greater priority for treatment.
  • Older people and very old people in particular may be judged to have had a ‘fair innings’ and thus be less deserving of limited health and social care resources (17).

Hughes and Griffiths recorded a series of cardiac catheterization case conferences at which cardiologists discussed potential candidates for surgery with the consultant cardiothoracic surgeon. The researchers found that in many case conferences, the age of the patient (and other social factors such as social position) appeared to influence the outcome. However, rather than explicitly exclude or disadvantage patients, age was used tacitly to position patients on the waiting list. Decisions were rationalized in terms of technical feasibility. Age tended to be only explicitly acknowledged as an important factor in decision making in cases where patients were young (18). Older people are less likely to be accepted for treatment for end stage renal failure than younger patients and particularly so in UK (although acceptance rates also decline with age internationally). However, New and Mays argued that it is possible to support claims of age discrimination made on basis of this data, because, at the general level, age is statistically associated with clinical ability to benefit  (19). P.Little in the British Journal of General Practice wrote that older people may not be offered the same treatment for example, health and lifestyle advice is not always offered to older people although many older people are unaware that their lifestyles are unhealthy (20).

In a research on the denial of latest cancer treatment to the elderly people, Katey Karam of age concern, said: “the findings in this research appear to compound the evidence we have found in our campaign against ageism in the National Health Service (NHS). We have received reports from elderly patients who have been denied life-saving cancer treatment as well as health professionals who have confirmed that such treatments are rationed among the elderly. “We have heard that patients over 60 have been denied heart transplants and know that older people are not represented in trials. It is issues like these that typify ageist policies that exist within the health service. They must be addressed by the Government” (21).

According to a research by Patricia Fowler on “The attitudes towards the older adult patient: A study of the influence that radiographers have on radiography students”. There was an overall positive attitude demonstrated on the part of both radiographers and students. Students identified both perceived negative and positive interactions between radiographers and the older adult patient, but evaluated these and took the positive as a model for professional development (22). In a research conducted by Prue Mellor et al on “The nurses’ attitude towards elderly people and knowledge of gerontic care in a Multi Purpose Health Service(MPHS)” using Kogan’s Old People’s scale(KOP), Palmore’s Facts of Ageing Quiz(PFAQ) and Nurses’ Knowledge of Elderly Patients Quiz(NKEPQ), the key findings indicated that even though nurses in this MPHS have strongly positive attitudes toward elderly people, they have knowledge deficits in key clinical areas of both gerontic nursing and socio-economic understanding of the population in Australia(23). In an enquiry urged into ‘Ageism in the National Health Service (NHS)’, doctors called on the British Medical Association to launch a full investigation into the extent and effect ageism in the NHS. Dr Lewis Morrison, a geriatrician, proposing the motion, said the service was sitting on the demographic time-bomb as the population aged. There was already much anecdotal evidence of age discrimination in the NHS, he said. The elderly were major users of health service. “If the NHS had the equivalent of a frequent flyer programme, they would be gold card-holders. It is there a fundamental right that they should be treated equally and fairly in the NHS. “We have seen sporadic evidence of inequality of access to services, investigation and treatments but we have no global picture. Before we can address this problem we must define its extent and its effects” (24). A 2006 report from the Healthcare Commission, Audit commission and commission for social care inspection in UK assessing progress since publication of the National Service Framework for older people in 2001, noted that “assessing whether services are provided fairly between age group is not straight forward, not least because many organizations cannot provide detailed data on who uses their service (25).

In a report by Tara Womersley, elderly patients are being denied their independence with longer than necessary hospital stays or needless moves into residential homes. Many were not given the services needed to recover at home and rehabilitation treatment was “fragmented” according to the audit commission(26). Little attention is being paid to the special needs of elderly in emergency departments according to Arthur B Sanders in a research “Care of the elderly in emergency departments: conclusions and recommendations”. Emergency health care professionals feel less comfortable caring for elderly than for non elderly patients. The emergency care of the elderly requires significantly more health care resources than does that of the non elderly. Compared with nonelderly patients seeking emergency care are four times more likely to use ambulance services, five times more likely to be admitted to the hospital, five times more likely to be admitted to an intensive care bed, and six times more likely to receive comprehensive emergency services (27). The European social survey of 2010 showed that Britain is one of the worst in Europe for negative attitudes to elderly people (28). A Help the Aged survey of 200 geriatricians in 2009 suggested that almost half believed that the National Health Service (NHS) was institutionally ageist (29)(30)and were worried about how it would treat them in old age. More than 70% said older people were less likely to be considered and referred on for essential treatments.

Fowler points towards the professional socialization of students as an important component in developing or altering attitudes towards older adults (31). In a study by Thomas H. Nochajski et al on the “Milieu in Dental School and Practice Factors That Influence Dental Students’ Attitude About Older Adults”, they found out that dental students in their study held slightly positive attitudes towards older adults in three of four subscales(Integrity, Autonomy and Acceptability), with the fourth subscale(Instrumentality) being slightly more negative. They also said that these findings are somewhat consistent with attitudes of medical students, nurses and college students in general (32). There is evidence of age discrimination with respect to older people’s access to services according to a report based on research undertaken by Eileen McGlone et al. Many of the older people consulted felt ‘fobbed off’ because of their age and reported experiencing differential treatment on the part of health and social service providers. Staff also highlighted the fact that they believe that some older people were not being referred to specialist services because of their age. Individual service providers also appeared to be making negative value judgments about further treatment based on the age of their patients. The older people consulted also highlighted problem with communication. They particularly resented the practice of staff consulting with family members about their condition while not consulting with them. Staff acknowledged that this does occur, but not to the same extent as in the past. Many of the older people in the study reported negative experiences with staff in the acute sector. They felt that they were often ignored or not taken seriously. Some staff agreed that the quality of care in acute hospitals can be less than optimal and cited lack of resources and limited staff complement as possible reasons for this (33). Older people tend to be stereotyped by some service providers as a homogenous group characterized by passivity, failing physical and mental health, and dependency.

A qualitative study of ageism in the Australian health services by Minichiello et al provided details of a number of negative experiences with health professionals reported by the older people interviewed. They spoke of incidents where they were expected to tolerate and accept physical discomfort and pain. They also reported that they were not properly informed of the reasons why medical tests were conducted (34).  A study of 200,000 women aged 50 and over conducted by the American National Osteoporosis Foundation showed that 40% of the women had brittle bones, 7% had full-blown osteoporosis and 11% had suffered fractures. At least enough to impact on their ability to work, drive, enjoy music, etc. the women were unaware of their condition because their doctors never made it known to them. Only 10% of the women interviewed aged 65 and over had received the recommended bone density mass test (35). A review of cardiac rehabilitation in the UK found that although there was no written policy regarding upper age limits, age was a factor in practice, in that it was to position patients on a waiting list (36). A 2003 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that between25% and 40% of Americans aged 65 and over experience some level of hearing impairment. Despite these numbers, many of the respondents were not assessed or treated by physicians for hearing loss, even though hearing aids and other treatments could improve hearing for many (37).  A major survey conducted in 2000 of 12000 patients admitted with injuries to Scottish A&E departments found that excess mortality in older patients was higher than expected. Older patients were much less likely than younger people with similar injuries to receive appropriate treatment. They were also less likely to be referred to intensive care or for specialist investigation. In addition, it was found that medical staff did not always recognize the significant threat of moderate injuries to older people (38). These findings are alarming because a high proportion of emergency admissions to A&E departments are older people. Although there are national standards in the UK guiding waiting times for treatment in A&E departments,(39) some staff were concerned that they were unable to provide older patients with the standard of care appropriate for their specific needs and that standard waiting times did not take sufficient account of their frailty (40).

Research undertaken in Australia by Stevens and Herbert identified how the nursing profession was likely to have negative stereotypes about ageing reinforced. They maintained that there are many forms of ageism in nursing and nursing academia including jokes, words and patronizing gestures when addressing and describing older people (41). In 1998, an independent investigation in the UK into acute hospital care found evidence of negative attitudes towards older people and inadequacies in the care provided on some general acute wards. The investigation found that in certain instances, hospitals were failing to meet even basic standards of nutrition or personal hygiene for older patients, causing great distress to patients and their relatives, and resulting in adverse outcomes (42).


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion

5.1 Summary of Findings

The results obtained from this survey show that:

  1. Radiographers are knowledgeable about geriatric patients care and management
  2. The patients are properly received on arrival into the examination rooms by the radiographers in the hospitals of study.
  3. The patients were called by their first name and surname by radiographers into the examination room.
  4. Radiographers do not introduce themselves to the geriatric patients before handling them.
  5. The radiographers do not ask the patients about their illness and how they are faring.
  6. There exist a very poor communication gap between the geriatric patients and the radiographers.
  7. The radiographers are confirmed by the geriatric patients to have a very good positive attitude towards them.
  8. Radiographers are trained on geriatric care and management but the training was not enough.
  9. The attention given to geriatric patients in the hospital is adequate.
  10. Female radiographers have relatively more negative attitude towards the geriatric patients.

5.2 Recommendations

The attitude of the radiographers towards the geriatric patients may be considered as positive but the following are still recommended for the purpose of professional development:

  1. Even though the radiographers are knowledgeable about geriatric care and management a few are not and so the department should organize seminars on geriatric management and care to enlighten radiographers on the ways and methods of geriatric handling. This will also help to remind radiographers of difference between young patients and geriatric patients due to anatomical and physiological changes in them.
  2. The radiography curriculum should be revisited to inculcate enough programs pertaining geriatric care and management. This will go a long way in enhancing professional development since young graduates of radiography which is the future of the profession will be well equipped in tackling the challenges in geriatric care and management.
  3. Radiographers should address the patients properly by the way their names are called and should inculcate the habit of including their titles while calling them.
  4. Radiographers should cultivate the habit of informing the patients the nature of examination to be conducted, what they are expected to do and so on. This will help reduce the communication gap between the radiographers and the geriatric patients and reduce the anxiety of patients.
  5. A notice of the radiographers’ code of ethics and patients’ bill of rights should be posted on the notice board of the radiographers’’ common room to serve as a constant reminder for radiographers of their duties to patients.

5.3 Limitations

  1. Some of the geriatric patients did not give their honest reply because of the feeling that they may put the radiographers in trouble.
  2. Some geriatric patients with critical conditions like coma or unconscious patients were not used or consulted.
  3. Most of the radiographers responded based on the ideal situation and not what is practically obtained.

5.4 Area of Further Research

  1. Evaluation of the attitude of radiographers towards the geriatric patients in the hospitals in south-west or south-south regions of Nigeria
  2. Evaluation of knowledge of geriatric patients pertains to their right in the hospital using the hospitals of study.

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