The Role Of Radio In Mobilizing Women For Politics In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Ilorin West L.G.A)
Women constitute a critical segment of the Nigerian population. Radio plays a major role in mobilizing women for politics in Nigeria for majority of women groups in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to use radio to mobilize women to participate in politics also to voice out some cultural values in Nigeria that makes it difficult for women to take part in the decision making process. A random selection of literate people within the age of 25 and above will be selected from ILOLRIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA to fill the questionnaires. The researchers used the purposive sampling technique to select 100 respondents out of the people. A total of 100 questionnaires were administered on the respondents section B of the questionnaire. The respondents section A was used to collect data on respondent’s opinion on the study topic. This study will broaden people’s views on the usefulness of broadcast media in mobilization women for political decision making.
1.1 Background of the Study
Women constitute a critical segment of the Nigerian population. They are active in the agriculture and economic sectors of the society and have also contributed immensely to the decolonization and general development of this great country.
Women struggles, date back to the 19th century when women like Amina zaria, madam tinubu of lagos , Olufomilayo ramson kuti of Abeokuta, maggaret ekipo and haji gaban Swabia among others, fought to give women the pride of place in Nigerian history.
After the struggle for independence was over and Nigeria became an independent sovereign nation women continued to contribute their quota in the post-independence match towards development and progress.
In the area of politics, the above named amongst others contributed immensely to the mobilization and sensitization of women with a view to ensuring that women are involved in the politics of the country.
At present, the issues pertaining to women have continued to draw a global attention with the result that the problems that impede their progress are currently being addressed concretely. Consequently, the quest for women empowerment has heightened the political consciousness of women. Some of them occupy strategic position in government where they have continued to prove their mettle. For instance Ruqoyat Gbemisola Saraki, Dora Akuyili, oby Ezekwesili of due process fame, Ndi Okereke Onyilike,
Ngozi Okunji Iweala and Faridat Waziri Among others have undoubtedly distinguished themselves in their official assignment.
The role of women in development has for long being taken for granted and relegated to the background. For a long time, politics in Nigeria has been played with the usual patronizing attitude which usually does not go far in enlighten women. Some of the factors employed are social and cultural practices women hitherto have been mis-interpreted to create biases against women. There is need for women to be properly oriented so that their numerical strength and voting power can be profitably galvanized and oriented towards empowerment of other women who will in turn look after the welfare of all other women by formulating gender sensitive loss to promote women cause.
Radio plays a major role in mobilization women for politics in Nigeria for majority of women groups in Nigeria, improving the lots of Nigerian women is a prime target.
The experience of the management of women is all facts of life is feasible to cultural practice of gender relations within the Nigeria society these practice have become acceptability of life and are not to be questioned.
The radio, because it is cheap have become affordably easy access and have become a base means of mobilizing Nigerian women for politics.
One thing that is glaring today is that some of the radio stations in Nigeria is the presence of Nigerian women has newsmaker. The women groups in Nigeria have the greatest task of carrying out enlightment campaign over the radio to educated Nigerian women as their right and what constitutes violation of such right, some of these women empowerment and participation include
- WOMEN IN NIGERIA (WIN)
- NIGERIA WOMENS RIGHT WATCH
- CIVIL RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION CENTRE (CIBDDDOC).
- WOMEN’S CONSORTIUM OF NIGERIA (WOCON).
The list is not exhaustive.
The zonal workshop on women in governance and decision making network and working as a group was covered by the Imo state radio and radio Nigeria in Imo state. The zonal network groups are following capacity building framing activities designed to provide and contribute to the broader goal of empowering and advocating for the full participation of women and enlist ions potential women leader in governance and decision making. This interactive platform has been created in many parts of Nigeria expectation from the south eastern state of Nigeria and in particular from Imo state.
At the zonal networking workshop that was held in Imo state, women were encouraged to take active parts in their unions to organize meeting with their leadership positive. Participants were also encouraged to organize awareness and skill acquisition programmers to enable them to contest and hold political offices
Meanwhile, many radio station scattered all over Nigeria are coming up to address the culture of silence that has contributed to the absence of women in politics in Nigeria.
In the area of information pertain to women in politics, our local Radio station are also coming up with beneficial information‘s in form of revamping the sector into a dynamic tools for facilitating effective women participation in politics.
What is really the meaning of politics? Various scholars have different definition of politics some have defined it as a game of wits, all that begins and ends with government. Other say politics is essentially the art and science of government. That is, the study of the control, distribution and use of power over human activities in the society.
The word politics is derived from the Greek word polis, which means ‘’City State”. Winter and bellows (1968) pointed out that Aristotle (384322BC) In his treatise on human associations stated that the most sovereign inclusive association is the polis which presupposes the establishment of government law-making, enforcement and eliciting obedience from the members of the society. Aristotle observed that man is by nature a political animal. This means that politics permeates all human activities. It manifests in social, economic and cultural intersections among individuals and groups and transcends international frontiers.
The obvious associated with the concept and practice of politics influenced the emergence of the Laswellian theory of politics, which states that politics is who gets what and how (Laswellien 1958).
The Nairobi world conference to review and appraise the achievement of the UN Decade for women in 1985, and the Beijing fourth world conference on women in 1995, both had top on their Agenda issues concerning women and the media (Radio). These in conferences brought to the fore the importance of the media(Radio) in the quest for gender equity in development conference in spite these international conferences and policies aimed at gender friendliness women’s participation in Nigeria politics is undermined by the way the media (Radio in particular) represent politics as an exclusively male domain.
It is here posited that Radio could significantly influence the acceleration and acceptability of woman in politics.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
It is not a hidden fact that women are underrepresented in the field of politics. This may be because of the basic assumption that ‘’a women’s place is in the kitchen’’ in other words her home duties and family responsibilities should be her sole priority, thereby underlining her active participation in national development in general.
Another assumption militating against female participation is that Female is biologically not designed for energy exerting and hazardous occupation.
This argument may not be true because, with the age of automation and revolution in decision making intellectual ability counts more than physical energy.
The issue of gender bias too contributes enormously to the low participation of women in politics. Bewerly (1995),notes that the society assume that women should be mothers, school teachers, hairdressers, secretaries, nurses, maids and social workers only. Therefore, they do not need education not to talk of taking part in decision making. This believe is wrong as both men and women need and can pursue politics and projects in development, each in their own unique ways, alongside each other.
The home too is not left out in contributing to female’s lack of participation in politics. In the home, husband attributes can directly or indirectly influence the choices their wives made in either to enter into politics or not.
Many political parties, reflecting the more general conditions in the rest of society, do not easily accept or promote many women in their echelons, let alone permits women’s occupation of important positions within these parties.
This issue is particularly important in view of Abdullah’s (1993) argument that to achieve women libration, it will be tacked within democratic movements.
Thus, if this issue is not looked into, women will be illiterates and be backward and left out in National development and premises.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of this study is to use radio to mobilize women to participate in politics also to voice out some cultural values in Nigeria that makes it difficult for women to participate in the decision making process. There is need for attitudinal change and total reorientation in this respect.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This researcher wants to understudy the “Role of radio in mobilizing women for politics in Nigeria”.
In the course of this study, the most popular and populous local government in Kwara state, ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT, used as a parameter for an appreciable measure of precision and consciousness, this research will concentrate on this specific and will not delude into any irrelevance that will make the work to lose focus.
This study will be limited to women within the age range of 18 and above. A random selection of literate people within the age of 25 and above will be selected from ILOLRIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT to fill the questionnaires.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is expected that at the end of this study update knowledge of the relevance of women mobilization through the radio shall be established. Particularly the study will broaden people’s views on the usefulness of broadcast media in mobilizing women to take part in decision making. This study will draw the attention of government to empower women to participate in politics through the use of the promote the welfare of women in general. Also the federal government should promote the full utilization of women in the development of human resources and to bring about their acceptance as full participation in every phase of national development with equal rights and corresponding obligations at least reserving 30% elective position for women.
Another important significance of this project is for election to be conducted according to the rules, in which all qualified individuals especially women are free to vote or be voted for without constraint of manipulations (WILLIAMS 2008)
1.6 Research Question
- Does marriage influences women participation in politics?
- To what extent does culture affect women participation in politics in Nigeria?
- Do radio actually mobilized women enough towards political participation?
- Does women participation in politics depend on their exposure to radio?
- To what extent does gender inequality or discrimination affects women in politics in Nigeria?
1.7 Research Hypothesis;
The following research hypothesis derived logically from the problems posed in the research questions.
This is necessary in order to give direction, focus as litmus test of the statement of claims or prepositions contained in the rein.
- H1: Marriage influence women participation in politics.
Ho: Marriage does not influence women participation in politics.
- H2: Culture affects women participation in politics in Nigeria.
Ho: Culture does not affect women participation in politics in Nigeria.
- H3: Radio actually mobilizes women enough towards political participation.
H0: Radio does not actually mobilize women enough toward political participation.
- H4: Women participation in politics depends on their exposure to radio.
H0: Women participation in politics does not depend on their exposure to radio.
- H5: Gender inequality or gender discrimination affects women in politics in Nigeria.
Ho: Gender inequality or gender discrimination does not affect women in politics in Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like all human endeavors, the research work was not without some factors that tended to Jeopardous the smooth completion of the study.
Fore one, the period of the allowed for this work has short that the researchers did not have time to carry out the research effectively.
Invariably, the limitation of the study is being influenced by the proximity of the case study to the researchers as well as transportation and financial constraints which makes it to choose a reputable Local government within Ilorin metropolis. ILORIN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT based on geographical antiquity to the researchers.
1.9 Definition of the Key Terms.
In this study, certain key words will be explained into conceptual and operational meaning / definition.
The degree to women somebody/something is involved in a situation or an activity and the effect that they have on it.
Functions, expectation associated on a given past or position.
It’s a channel through which information / programmers are sent out to people.
This is one of mass media that use to send message to heterogeneous group of people.
To make people ready to pursue a particular cause.
It has to do with organizing or preparing people for in particular purpose.
An adult human female
Women womanly having qualities heed to be appropriate
The activities involved in getting and using power in public’s life and being able to influence decision that affect a country or a society.
A competition between political parties to wards who or which party assumes political leadership.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The radio and politics is the core of this study as Boafo and Arnold (1995) put it “Broadcast is not only necessary to the various aspect of human development but also to the process of participating and nurturing polity.” However, from the gender dimension, Nwakwo (1996) captures the position of this study that the broadcast media in found wanting in festering the development of gender equality in politics.
Thus in Nigeria it was also found that despite the deliberate international politics aimed at gender friendly political representation. Women are underrepresented.
It is high time for everyone (especially women) to realize that gender identities are largely culturally created and no sex/gender is more important than the other women constitute about 51% of votes but a review of the Nigerian political sense reveals a try for gender equitable development considering the fact that women were in governance among the various ethnic groups in Nigeria during the pre-colonial period. This analysis showed that broadcast media (Radio) in partly to blame for this situation.
Evidence revealed that there are various ways through when radio broadcast has helped to keep women in the private sphere. For instance broadcast media (especially radio and television) preparative masculine culture that present women as unit for politics. Broadcast media achieve this through it use language media coverage on women issues. Image used and assignment of political editorial positions amongst others these became evident in the analysis of motion pictures if broadcast and the content of their editorial opinion and reportage also even when women are covered politically, they are not given prominence.
Women issue should be properly integrated into the information and communication system. Furthermore radio should be more responsible to the needs of women in politics it should present information which do not distort be little or demean women or confine them to stereotyped behavior and roles. Hence, the call for broadcast media in which women participates and shares in determining the content in decision making and control. In fact broadcast media (Radio) should be committed to social responsibility and gender accountability in the Arena of politics.
The following recommendations are entrenched in this project:-
- Grassroots enlightment campaign should be organized to change the negative attitude of most to women participation in politics as well as to inspire women to use for election position.
- Godfathers should be extended to women political aspirants in relation to sponsorship.
- The National assembly as a matter of state policy should implement affirmative action involving reservation of 30% elective post for women.
- Economic empowerment of women should be vigorously pursued such it will provide greater participation of women in electioneering.
- Above all women should be encourage themselves and support female political aspirants, equally. Husband should encourage and support wives with political vision and ambition.
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