The Role Of Radio In The Development Of Agriculture In The Rural Area

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Role Of Radio In The Development Of Agriculture In The Rural Area


Abstract


The primary objective of this study is to examine how radio plays a role in rural and agricultural development with specific reference to Enugu State. In carrying out this study, the method in which the researcher used to collect her data was questioner. The target population for the study was media practitioners, development experts, farmers, academicians and the rural dwellers in Enugu metropolis. A sample size of 300 was drawn. The researcher asked research questions and formulated research hypotheses from the research questions for the study, Data were collected, analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Also chi-square (X2) was used to test data generated from the hypotheses. Table and sample percentage were also used to analyze the result. The result of the study revealed the following: The radio facilitates and enhanced agricultural development in Nigeria. That radio air development information to rural areas in Enugu state. Also, most of the research hypotheses were confirmed positively. Finally the researcher drew conclusion and recommendation for further studies on the topic.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Development has been defined as a process of change which is aimed at achieving self-reliance and improve the living condition of under privilege majority of the population. The above definition was according to Linden (1989: 36) “Communication in assistance for Third World communities”.

The role of media in all aspect of development in any given society cannot be over emphasized. Radio is the instruments of mass education. They combine their audio-visual impact to maintain an edge over other forms of mass media. Radio can be used in a number of ways to educate, inform, entertain, sensitize as well as generally socialize in the development of agricultural in rural Areas. As a result of these factors stated above, one can say that for effective agricultural and rural development, the role of Radio in achieving them cannot be over stressed.

However, this research work is indeed to examine the role which Radio play in the agricultural and rural development.

Agricultural is the central occupation for majority of the people in Nigeria.

The prime target of this study is as a result of the information and communication on gap that exist in the country between the farmers who ought to benefit from the improved farming method. Conversely, political programme for the states and local governments business promotion or commercially sponsored programmes that can touch the lives of people or farmers that are living in the rural communities. It abundant political and economic orientated programmes are playing their expected roles for the target audience, then sufficient and adequate agricultural programmes will no doubt play their expected roles for the farmers.

However, in the aspect of rural development, the need for Radio in particular and other forms of mass media in general in ensuring rural development is as vital as and other role played by the media in the development and advancement of a nation. Because Radio is a powerful instrument of development in all ramification. As a result of this, its use in the overall development of rural or urban areas must be given special attention, to development experts. This is because its power to communicate makes it one of the most efficient means of reading rural dwellers in the society. As Baran (1999: 4) states, “Communication is the transmission of a message from a source to a receiver”. This means that, if appropriate channel or device is not used to communicate to rural areas on development related matters they will find it difficult to adopt the necessary development programme prospects and ideas which will encourage them to develop. Through appropriate use of Radio to transfer message need of this rural Areas, it becomes very imperative desired goals and objectives of dealing so effective use Radio of will definitely guarantee effective means of paying attention to the development needs of those residing in the rural areas.

Gerbner (180) cited in Griffin (1991: 301) asserts that that Radio power comes from symbolic content of the real life drama show hour after hour, week after week. At its root, Radio is “story” and a society’s stories give corent stories picture of what exist, what is important, what is related to what and what is right. Also to battress Gerbners point as stated by Griffin (earlier cited). McQuail and Windatil (1981: 36) write that, “The medium image held by the receiver causes expectation of the medium content and may thus be assumed to have an influenced on the receivers choice of content as well as on his way of experiencing it and responding to it.

This means that proper use of Radio in the development of agricultural in the rural areas broadcasting and its content in rural development will increase the chances of the rural dwellers ability to respond to such development information carried on the Radio for their own good. It could be said that the Federal Radio corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) is a mass medium used to transmit development communication to rural areas in Enugu state. As a result of this feat, it would be generally influenced by its effectiveness to influence the rural dwellers or otherwise.


1.2 Statement of the Research Problems

The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) otherwise known as Radio Nigeria Enugu is a station owned by the Federal Government of Nigeria. This broadcast station turn out programmes in block and band (Frequency modulated (FM) and Short waves band) across the weeks and days respectively. But has little of their time allocated to agricultural programmes for the interest of the farming population. Also the Nigeria small holder farmer urgently needs to improve his output and input of agricultural products for overall benefits of the society and also to meet up with the demands of the contemporary society but this is still dream to be realized. Records of Anambra State Agricultural Development project (ASADEP) profile (1997: 36) shows that agricultural development in most developing countries like Nigeria and Enugu in particular depicts a slow pace of progress. Many factors are still constraining the achievement of mechanized farming. Other factors militate against effective commercialization and overall development of agriculture in Nigeria but lack of information and awareness on modern techniques and innovation by the farmer is a major, if not the most important problem of the agriculture in our society.

Meanwhile, in Nigeria today, not many rural household have Radio to listen to different types of programme aired on radio which are meant to promote development in such rural areas. Also incessant power failure and high cost of buying and maintenance of a radio set maybe a problem of using radio for different purposes by rural areas. Also poor funding of development project and programmes by the government, information through the media and centralization of the media are among the problems that necessitate this type of study. Infact, Radio by their qualitative characteristics introduces fundamental changes to the society and make possible the increase involvement and participation of people across the boundaries of class, age group and nation. Therefore the pre-models basic role of radio which is to inform, educate and entertain can be applied to the field of agricultural and rural development to put on course for development.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the role of radio in the development of agriculture in the rural area; but to aid the completion of the, the researcher intend to achieve the following specific objective;

  1. To determine whether radio addresses the needs of the farming community in Enugu state
  2. To examine the competence of the resource persons used in radio programming and sensitizing farmers on appropriate methods of farming
  3. To determine the appropriateness of time and frequency of the program
  4. To investigate the usefulness of the program to farmers.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to aid the completion of the study;

  1. H0: radio program does not address the needs of the farming community in Enugu state
    H1: radio program does t address the needs of the farming community in Enugu state
  2. H0: resource persons used in radio programming in sensitizing farmers on appropriate methods of farming is not competent
    H2: resource persons used in radio programming in sensitizing farmers on appropriate methods of farming is competent

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the management of radio stations in slating qualified personnel to anchor agricultural sensitization program considering the importance of agriculture to the growth and development of Enugu state and Nigeria at large; the study will also be of importance to ministry of agriculture as the study seek to explore the merit of collaboration between the government and broadcast station in educating farmers on the way forward on the development of agriculture in the state; the study will also be beneficial to researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further research, finally the study will be of great importance to the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also add to knowledge.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers the role of radio in the development of agriculture in the rural area; but in the cause of the study there were some factors the limited the scope of the study;

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials:

Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Financial Constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).


1.7 Operational Definition of Terms

Radio

Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width

Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

Agriculture Development

Agriculture development means providing assistance to the crop producers with the help of various agricultural resources. Providing protection, assisting in the research sphere, employing latest techniques, controlling pests and facilitating diversity all fall within the purview of agriculture development.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.
Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study. Chapter two deals with review of related literature. Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis. Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to examine the role of radio in the development of agriculture in rural area.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of radio in the development of agriculture in rural area.


5.2 Summary

In connection to whether the needs of the farming community are met by radio in Enugu state, the researcher is of the opinion that the farmers acquired new skills in agriculture, new techniques of diseases and pests control and learned new types of farming. They also learnt how to practice effective farming, how to enhance their farming skills, poultry farming, how to enhance their farm outputs, how to maximize benefits from agriculture and how to utilize modern technology in agricultural production. Concerning the competence of the resource persons used in radio programming, the study concludes that the programme‟s expert had valuable information on modern techniques of farming.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it could be concluded that radio is an effective means of communicating agricultural information to the farmers and as such an effective tool in creating awareness about improved agricultural information most especially among farmers in the rural areas. The findings revealed that majority of the farmers that listened to agricultural programme were males, married and were within the active productive ages of 31-42 years. All the farmers were found having one type of education or the other more especially Islamic education. It was also observed that almost all the farmers received information on agriculture from farm radio programmes and most of the information disseminated through the farm radio was aired through discussions (talking) by an extension worker or an expert on the field. Based on the findings of the study, knowledge of certain agricultural practices such as appropriate and correct application of fertilizer, agricultural practices, prevention of post-harvest losses, appropriate treatment for various animals’ diseases and access to agricultural credits and loans were obtained. The study reveals that knowledge obtained through radio agricultural programmes were very important, highly relevant and effective in solving farmer’s agricultural problems.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, it is deemed necessary to draw the following recommendations:

  1. Agricultural farm radio stations should be established within the reach of the farmers.
  2. There is need for more effort in providing more agricultural information programmes to farmers through radio especially in the morning hours and during some of the leisure times of the farmers.
  3. The public and Non-Government Organization (NGO’s) should endeavor to sponsor some agricultural programmes especially those that have strong bearing with the needs and interest of the farmers.

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