Drugs Abuse And Prevalence Of Violence Among Adolescents

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Drugs Abuse And Prevalence Of Violence Among Adolescents


Abstract


This study was carried out on drugs abuse and prevalence of violence among adolescents using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out the prevalence of drugs abuse among adolescents, ascertain the causes of drugs abuse among adolescents, find out whether drugs abuse influences the behavioral pattern of adolescents and find out whether drugs abuse contributes to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents.The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of some some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of drugs abuse among adolescents includes: curiosity, parents involvement in drugs, media, lack of parental care/supervision, depression, and peer influence. The study also revealed that drugs abuse contributes to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents.Therefore, it is recommended that the health workers should organize seminars and lectures on drug abuse and also teach the youths the dangers of drug misuse and abuse; they should take the pain of visiting medical stores and schools regularly to check the type and quality of drugs. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The association between the abuse of alcohol and other drugs and aggressive and violent behavior has historically been a focus of anention for the general public, clinical practitioners, and those responsible for the development and implementation of public policy. In part, concerns about the connection between drug use and violent crime were used to justlfy the imposition of drug laws, the imprisonment of users, and the creation of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Walter, 2016).

Superficially, a direct relationship between alcohol, drugs, and aggressive violence seems deceptively apparent: a disproportionate number of violent crimes are committed by individuals who are under the influence of psychoactive substances or are in the drug trade. Reinforcing this perspective is the observation that prisons are also largely populated by substance-abusing in- dividuals? However, the argument for a direct causal link is seriously undermined by the fact that a significant proportion of the younger American population uses alcohol andor other drugs4 but apparently do not engage in violent behavior (Turner, 2016).

‘Substance abuse’ refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. The most common substance abused are alcohol, marijuana (ganja), bhang, hashish (charas), various kinds of cough syrups, sedative tablets, brown sugar, heroin, cocaine, tobacco (cigarette, gutka, pan masala) etc. Substance abuse is also known as drug abuse. A pharmaceutical preparation or a naturally occurring substance used primarily to bring about a change in an existing process or state (physiological, psychological or biochemical) can be called a drug. In simpler terms, any chemical that alters the physical or mental functioning of an individual is a drug (Walter, 2016). A drug may or may not have medical uses; its use may or may not be legal. The use of a drug to cure an illness, prevent a disease or improve health is termed ‘drug use’. But when a drug is taken for reasons other than medical, in an amount, strength, frequency or manner that causes damage to the physical or mental functioning of an individual, it becomes ‘drug abuse’. Any type of drug can be abused; drugs with medical uses can also be abused. Illegal drugs like brown sugar and ganja have no medical use at all (Nyaga, 2014).

To use them, is to abuse them. Drug abuse defined as a disease in 1956 by the World Health Organisation and the American Psychiatric Association, drug abuse is “the illicit consumption of any naturally occurring or pharmaceutical substance for the purpose of changing the way, in which a person feels, thinks or behaves, without understanding or taking into consideration the damaging physical and mental side-effects that are caused”. Substance abuse leads to substance addiction with the development of tolerance and dependence. Tolerance refers to a condition where the user needs more and more of the drug to experience the same effect. Smaller quantities, which were sufficient earlier, are no longer effective and the user is forced to increase the amount of drug intake.

Slowly, drug dependence develops. Both substance abuse and dependence require a maladaptive pattern of substance use. Substance abuse criteria include use resulting in inability to meet major role obligations, legal problems, and an increase in risk-taking behaviours or exposure to hazardous situations. Criteria for substance dependence include the physiological criteria of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms, use resulting in abandonment of important activities, spending increasing time in activities related to substance use, using substances for a longer time than planned, and use despite the existence of worsening problems due to the substance use. Some drugs produce only psychological dependence while others produce both physical and psychological dependence.

Psychological dependence is a state characterized by emotional and mental preoccupation with the effects of the drug and a persistent craving for it. As psychological dependence develops, the user gets mentally ‘hooked’ on the drug. When physical dependence develops, the user’s body becomes totally dependent on the drug (Turner, 2016).

With prolonged use, the body becomes so used to functioning under the influence of the drug, which it is able to function normally only if the drug is present. After the user becomes dependent, if the intake of drugs is abruptly stopped, withdrawal symptoms occur. In a sense, the body becomes ‘confused’ and ‘protests’ against the absence of the drug. The withdrawal symptoms may range from mild discomfort to convulsions, depending on the type of drug abused. The intensity of withdrawal symptoms depends on the physical condition of the user, the type of drug abused, the amount of drug intake and the duration of abuse. Symptoms of drug withdrawal are usually the opposite of the effects produced by the presence of the drug in the body. For example, brown sugar intake causes constipation, while one of its withdrawal symptoms is diarrhea. Such problems make it difficult for the user to give up drugs. He wants to avoid unpleasant withdrawal symptoms; and to avoid them he must keep on abusing the drug. The user is thus forced to continue drug abuse even if (or when) he knows that the drug is hurting him (Myers, 2016).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is estimated that there are about 62.5 million alcohol users, 8.7 million cannabis users and about 2 million opioids users in our country. There are an estimated 250 million tobacco users of age 10 and above. Total about 3 million (about 0.3 per cent of total population) estimated victims of different kinds of drug usages in Nigeria. Serious public health problems result from alcohol and other drug consumption. Drug abuse and its impact among women is now becoming more evident in Nigeria. Licit substances like tobacco and alcohol are widely prevalent, while abuse of illicit substances like cannabis, heroin, other opiates including opium and propoxyphene is recognized throughout the country. The abuse of psychotropic substances and solvents is also increasingly being recognized. Result from various earlier epidemiological researches in various regions in the Nigeria gives different picture of substance abuse. Alcohol ‘use/abuse’ prevalence in different regions has thus varied from 167/1000 to 370/1000; ‘alcohol addiction’ or ‘alcoholism’ or ‘chronic alcoholism’ from 2.36/1000 to 34.5/1000; alcohol and drug use/abuse from 21.4 to 28.8/1000 (Myers, 2016).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine drugs abuse and prevalence of violence among adolescents. Other specific aims of this study are to:

  1. Find out the prevalence of drugs abuse among adolescents.
  2. Ascertain the causes of drugs abuse among adolescents.
  3. Find out whether drugs abuse influences the behavioral pattern of adolescents.
  4. Find out whether drugs abuse contributes to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the prevalence of drugs abuse among adolescents?
  2. What are the causes of drugs abuse among adolescents?
  3. Does drugs abuse influence the behavioral pattern of adolescents?
  4. Does drugs abuse contribute to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses will validate this study:

  • H01: Drugs abuse do not influence the behavioral pattern of adolescents.
  • H02: Drugs abuse do not contribute to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be greatly significant to the government, public health officials and counsellors as this study will show how devastating drug abuse is to the adolescents and how it is linked to violence.

This study will also serve as a reference study for further studies and future reference.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on drugs abuse and prevalence of violence among adolescents. Specifically, this study is focused on finding out the prevalence of drugs abuse among adolescents, ascertaining the causes of drugs abuse among adolescents, finding out whether drugs abuse influences the behavioral pattern of adolescents and finding out whether drugs abuse contributes to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Drug Abuse:

The use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs for purposes other than those for which they are meant to be used, or in excessive amounts. Drug abuse may lead to social, physical, emotional, and job-related problems.

Violence:

Violence is the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on drugs abuse and prevalence of violence among adolescents using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was ondrugs abuse and prevalence of violence among adolescents using some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to find out the prevalence of drugs abuse among adolescents, ascertain the causes of drugs abuse among adolescents, find out whether drugs abuse influences the behavioral pattern of adolescents and find out whether drugs abuse contributes to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of some some selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of drugs abuse among adolescents is high.
  2. The causes of drugs abuse among adolescents includes: curiosity, parents involvement in drugs, media, lack of parental care/supervision, depression, and peer influence.
  3. Drugs abuse influences the behavioral pattern of adolescents.
  4. Drugs abuse contributes to the prevalence of violent behavior among adolescents.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

The Parent
  1. The attitude orientation of the individual can be changed by education, thus, education has to start from the home that is the family unit.
  2. Parents should train their children by playing with them and monitor their movement as to the kind of company they keep.
  3. Parents should study their children behaviour in order to be able to detect any change in behaviour. They should also try to know their children intellectual ability, so that they can give useful advice on their future academic career.
  4. Parents should be careful not to force career on their children because this mighty lead them to drug abuse.
  5. Also parents should teach their children how to cope with stressful condition, the family should have a negative attitude towards self-medication, they should also set good examples for their wards. The family for their wards the family should provide recreational facilities for their children.
The Health Workers

The health workers should organize seminars and lectures on drug abuse and also teach the youths the dangers of drug misuse and abuse; they should take the pain of visiting medical stores and schools regularly to check the type and quality of drugs.

The Government / Teachers

The government at all, three levels have a big role to play in the eradication and prevention of drug abuse the school and teachers falls under this big umbrella of government since the school is an agency of the government. I was able to discover that majority of students who use and abuse drugs do so as a result of excessive academic exercise. The government should discourage this by basing promotion and certification on continuous assessment instead of just on the main examination because to students examination is a do or die affair.

The teachers on their part should encourage the students, praise efforts only not condemn, instead they should commend they should set good drug use and abuse. The government should design a drug education programme because education plays fundamental role in helping to fight the misuse of drugs in the school in particular and the public in general.


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