Knowledge Of Risk Factors And Health Implications Of Illicit Drug Use Among Students Of Tertiary Institutions In Enugu North

Health Education Project Material

Knowledge Of Risk Factors And Health Implications Of Illicit Drug Use Among Students Of Tertiary Institutions In Enugu North


Abstract


University students are more prone to breakdown from the increasing academic stress based on their learning practice and experience. This might lead them to indulge in illicit drug use for gratification and reliving pressure, hence the need for this study on the knowledge of risk factors and health implications of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA, Enugu state. The researcher used a quantitative, non-experimental descriptive research design for this study. The researcher made use of a self-designed questionnaire to collect data that was used for analysis in the study. Data obtained were described and analyzed using descriptive techniques such as frequency distribution tables, mean and percentages. Findings of the study revealed that majority of the students are aware of the concept of illicit drug use (76.8%). The study reported that the effects of drug use on students’ health were Headache and hand tremors (87.7%), Liver damage (80.2%), Weight Loss (70.0%), Emotional and mental issues (69.1%), and Inability to sleep (76.8%). Strategies for reducing drug use among 200level University students were shown to include placing ban on Over the Counter (OTC) sales of these drugs, creating awareness on the dangers of drug abuse (87.7%), instituting early detection programs in the university, regular monitoring of pharmaceutical shops, and implementing disciplinary measures towards helping students indulging in drug use to receive therapeutic care. The study recommended that there is a need to create more awareness opportunities for improving the knowledge of the students on the concept of illicit drug use and its negative implications on their health and general wellbeing; as well collaboration between educational institutions, health professionals and counselors to offer therapeutic care.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Concept of Illicit Drug Use and its Effect
  • 2.3 Levels of Drug Use Prevention
  • 2.4 Theoretical Review
  • 2.5 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Drug use refers to the various levels and scales of use of illegal drugs or medications for purposes other than medical reasons, thus negatively affecting the individual socially, cognitively or physically (Kuria, 2016). Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers, and school authorities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic work and memory loss. While Lewinsohn (2017) defines a drug as any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning. It can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection.
Drug use amongst the global youth population has become a serious problem affecting everyone. Addiction leads many people, young people prominent amongst them, into a downward spiral of hopelessness that in some cases ends fatally. They range from glue- sniffing street children and teenage ecstasy users, to hard core heroin and cocaine addicts (Nacada, 2018). Drug abuse is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools, soaring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, government officials, taxpayers and workers.

Historically, the use of psychoactive substances or drugs can be said to be a universal phenomenon found among such diverse people as the Fangs of North-Western Equatorial Africa, the Aryans of Northern India, the Jivaro of the Amazonian rain forest, the Aborigines of Australia, the Reindeer Herders of Siberia (Hollister, 2017). Substance or drug abuse problem encompasses medical, socio-cultural and other variables and is not a merely medical or moral problem. According to Schmelleger (2017), people accept the use of some substances or drugs under certain circumstances as benign and even beneficial practice through connection to social and individual situations. The use of drugs like Benylin with codeine, Tutolin with codeine, for medical purposes like the whooping cough is not a drug abuse but becomes abuse only when it is geared towards producing some desired behaviours, physical dependency, and addiction and constitutes a nuisance to the society. According to Abdullahi (2018), the term substance/drugs is a abroad name that is not restricted to oral therapy (i.e. injection, capsules or tablets) but includes marijuana, alcohol as well as traditional alcoholic drinks.

The United States of America was found to have citizens who were four times more likely to report using cocaine in their lifetime than the next closest country, New Zealand (16% vs. 4%), Marijuana use was more widely reported worldwide, and the U.S. also had the highest rate of use at 42.4% compared with 41.9% of New Zealanders (Warner, 2018).The problem of alcohol and illicit drug use on college and university campuses is significant. Among college and university students, specific problems identified include binge-drinking, underage drinking, underage binge-drinking, and drug use. Estimates of prevalence of these behaviours range from 25 to 44%. American researchers have identified an upward trend for these problems, with increased percentages of students self-reporting these behaviours between 1993 and 2001 (Mohler-Kuo et al., 2017).Abuse of substance is considered as one of the most critical problems in public health in the American colleges (Sullivan and Risler, 2017).

Sub-saharan African countries have reported high rates of substance use among students in Universities with indicated rates as high as 84% for alcohol use and 54.7% for tobacco (Odek-Ogunde et al., 2016). The rates would continue to rise among students in institutions of higher learning in the near future with studies like Kuria (2016) finding alcohol use prevalence rates of up to 15% among secondary school students, and lifetime cigarette smoking rates of 32%. In a study among students, Ogwell et al., (2017) found a lifetime cigarette smoking rate of 31%. The Nigerian government has embarked on different campaigns to fight drug use and substance abuse (Michael Shiundu, 2016). Stakeholders established advisory committees and other mechanisms to help sensitize communities on the vice. The campaigns, which targeted parents and students, were spearheaded by community head at the grassroots level as drug use and substance abuse was becoming a disaster both in rural and urban settings.

Creating awareness to the public on the dangerous effects of drug use has become one of the key priorities in the government and administrative work, through this effort it is hoped that there will be reduced cases of drug and substance use especially among the youthful and adolescent population.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Nigerian youths and adolescents make use of different substances/drugs just in the same way as this is done in many other societies. Substances/drugs are abused in Nigeria simply because they are used without due authorization from formally qualified and registered persons who according to the laws of the land must approve their use (Chukwu, Pius, Fiase, Haruna, Terkuma, & Evangeline, 2017). According to different studies, the most common substances/drug use in Nigeria are marijuana, amphetamines, mandrax, proplus, barbiturates and codeine and these have been shown to have negative effects on the youths and the as a whole (Fawa, 2017; Obiamaka, 2016).

Many categories of youths are hooked on drug use which has resulted in addiction and development of negative behaviours. This includes an unbelievable large number of primary and secondary school pupils, undergraduate students, and even health professionals. Drug use could affect the psychological and physical conditions of users, thereby affecting their productivity and outcome (Chukwu et al., 2017). Specifically, in a bid to reduce the overwhelming activities and course work involved in nursing education, some students might indulge in drug use to alleviate the pressures and provide momentary gratification to them. However, this might become addictive and could affect their academics. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge of risk factors and health implications of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA, Enugu state.


1.4 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge of risk factors and health implications of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA, Enugu state. Specifically, the following objectives will guide the study;

  1. To assess the knowledge of risk factors of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA
  2. To evaluate the effects of illicit drug use on the health of students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA
  3. To identify the strategies for reducing illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA

1.5 Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study based on the research objectives;

  1. What is the knowledge of risk factors of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA?
  2. What are the effects of illicit drug use on the health of students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA?
  3. What are the strategies for reducing illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant relationship between knowledge of risk factors and use of illicit drugs among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA
  • HA1 There is a significant relationship between knowledge of risk factors and use of illicit drugs among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA

1.6 Significance of the Study

The results of this study will be significant to University students, educators, and the academic institution. The findings of the study will be useful to the nursing educators and the academic institutions as it will reveal the influence of major drugs on students’ academic performance and in their behavior aspects. The findings of the study will also be useful in providing data on the perception of students towards illicit drug use and their motivations for opting to use drugs, as well as provide adequate knowledge on the effect that drug use has ion their academic performance while informing them of therapeutic help and strategies for reducing drug use. This will enable the students to utilize better strategies for drug use which produce quality health and their performance in academic learning will be improved. The current study is useful in contributing to the general body of knowledge in this area for policy makers and educational stakeholders to adopt measures that will be instrumental in reducing illicit drug use among students, thereby contributing to improved health outcome and quality of life. Lastly, this study will provide baseline data on the study area and also contribute to empirical literature for future studies and research.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study will be conducted in Enugu North local government are of Enugu state, with a focus on University students. The study focused on assessing the knowledge of risk factors and health implications of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA, Enugu state.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher made use of University students in Enugu North local government are of Enugu state since all the tertiary institutions in Enugu state could not be exhausted.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Risk Factor:

In epidemiology, a risk factor or determinant is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. Due to a lack of harmonization across disciplines, determinant, in its more widely accepted scientific meaning, is often used as a synonym. In this study, refers to the variables that cause students to engage in illicit drug use.

Health Implication:

Refers to the negative consequences and effects of illicit drug use among University students, especially as it relates to their health and general well-being.

Illicit Drug Use:

Refers to any scope of use of illegal drugs: heroin use, cocaine use, tobacco use etc.

Tertiary Institution:

Refers to all formal post-secondary education, including public and private universities, colleges, technical training institutes, and vocational schools.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters.

  • Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study.
  • Chapter two contains the literature review.
  • Chapter three includes the methodology and study area.
  • Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study.
  • Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.

Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Study

The primary objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of risk factors and health implications of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA, Enugu state. A quantitative, non-experimental descriptive research design and 270 students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA, Enugu state were used. A self-designed questionnaire was developed according to the objectives of the study to guide in the generation of information. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and the research question were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage.

Findings of the study revealed that majority of the students are aware of the concept of drug use (76.8%). On the risk factors of drug use among students, responses showed them to include curiosity (90.5%), peer group influence (85.0%), lack of parental care/supervision (66.4%), personality problems due to socio-economic conditions (90.9%), the need for energy to study for long hours (78.7%), availability of the drugs (66.0%), and the need to prevent the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms (60.5%). Also, majority of the students agreed that the effects of illicit drug use on health of the students were Headache and hand tremors (87.7%), Liver damage (80.2%), Weight Loss (70.0%), Emotional and mental issues (69.1%), and Inability to sleep (76.8%).


5.2 Conclusion

This study was designed to assess the knowledge of risk factors and health implications of illicit drug use among students of tertiary institutions in Enugu North LGA, Enugu state. The study reported that the effects of drug use on health of the students were Headache and hand tremors, Liver damage, Weight Loss, Emotional and mental issues, and Inability to sleep. Strategies for reducing illicit drug use among University students were shown to include placing ban on Over the Counter (OTC) sales of these drugs, creating awareness on the dangers of drug abuse, instituting early detection programs in the university, regular monitoring of pharmaceutical shops, and implementing disciplinary measures towards helping students indulging in drug use to receive therapeutic care. This implies the importance of collaboration between educational institutions, health professionals and counselors to address the issue of illicit drug use among students and implement strategies to curb its negative implications on health and general health outcome.


5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;

  1. There is a need to create more awareness opportunities for improving the knowledge of the students on the concept of illicit drug use and its negative implications on their health and general wellbeing.
  2. There is a need for collaboration between educational institutions, health professionals and counselors to offer therapeutic care, psychological therapy, and health literacy on the dangers of drug abuse. This will help students and youths that are already addicted and help them improve their quality of life.
  3. Educational authorities should improve organizational processes by taking a more proactive approach to avoiding prevalence of drug use among students, especially on campus. This can be achieved by instituting early detection programs in the university and regular monitoring of pharmaceutical shops and other outlets where some of these drugs could be obtained.

Knowledge Of Risk Factors And Health Implications Of Illicit Drug Use Among Students Of Tertiary Institutions In Enugu North


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